4-2 activity: analyzing historical narratives

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Overview

Each historical event was experienced, perceived, and remembered differently depending on the person, which means there are many competing narratives of a single event. In this activity, you will compare the narratives represented in each of your sources.

Prompt

Use the provided Module Four Activity Template: Historical Narratives Word Document to complete this activity. First, you will locate an additional secondary source related to your historical event. You will then compare the narratives about your historical event in each of your sources (two primary and two secondary). Finally, you will choose a narrative you believe has been the most influential in terms of what is known about your historical event.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

  • Compare the narratives presented in your primary and secondary sources relevant to your historical event.
    • Apply the source analysis skills from the previous activity to help you compare the narratives about your historical event. Describe the stories told in each source about your historical event. Provide evidence from your sources to support your descriptions of the narratives. Consider the following questions:
      • How are the narratives in each source similar and/or different?
      • How has the story of your historical event and key figure or group (identified in the previous module) been told in the past and the present?
      • From which perspectives are the narratives told?
      • What was occurring in society at the time of the event, such as politics, the economy, and entertainment?
  • Describe one narrative that has significantly influenced the contemporary understanding of your historical event.
    • Select one narrative from the four you analyzed. Choose the narrative that you think has been the most influential in terms of what is known and unknown about your historical event. Explain why you chose this narrative and how it has impacted our current understanding of the event.
  • Explain how the chosen narrative helps you better understand your historical research question.
    • How does the narrative you chose expand, support, or challenge your research question?

Guidelines for Submission

Submit the Module Four Activity Template: Historical Narratives. Sources should be cited according to APA style. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more information on citations.

HIS 100 Module Four Activity Template: Historical Narratives


Locate an additional secondary source relevant to your historical event. Use all four of your sources (two primary and two secondary) to answer the questions below. Replace the bracketed text with your responses.

Attempt to write the APA style citations for your four sources. Include links to each source. You will not be penalized for incorrect citation format.

[Insert citation.]

[Insert citation.]

[Insert citation.]

[Insert citation.]

Compare the narratives presented in your primary and secondary sources relevant to your historical event.

[Insert text.]

Describe one narrative that has significantly influenced the contemporary understanding of your historical event.

[Insert text.]

Explain how the chosen narrative helps you better understand your historical research question.

[Insert text.]


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Alexis Waterman

HIS 100 Module Three Activity Template: Revising Questions

Replace the bracketed text below with your responses.

Identify a historical perspective that could be applied to your historical event.

America has witnessed many massacres in its history. However, one of the massacres that have been isolated from others because of their magnitude is the Tulsa race massacre. The Tulsa race massacre is unique in different dimensions. Firstly, it was race or ethnic-based. Secondly, it lasted for a few days, but the consequences were terrifying. The historical perspective that can be attributed to the Tulsa race massacre is racism between whites and minority ethnic groups, including blacks (Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, n.d.). From my standpoint, it is evident that the massacre could not have sprouted if the idea of racism could not have taken over the minds of the event participants. The whites could not have planned to lynch Dick Rowland if they were not racists or were not pushed by the spirit of racism.

Revise your research question based on evidence from your primary and secondary sources.

· Original Research Question: Considering evidence from primary and secondary sources, is it true that political figures and city officials with racist ideas instigated the Tulsa race massacre?

· Revised Research Question: Racism was the main cause of the Tulsa race massacre in Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Explain how historical perspective and evidence from sources influenced your finalized research question.

African. Racism has been and remains to be the leading cause of many massacres, wars, and misunderstandings between different ethnic groups in America. Based on evidence from the dissimilar primary and secondary sources consulted to complete the current assignment, it is obvious that Dick Rowland was accused of assaulting Sarah Page because he was black, and Sarah was white (Messer, 2021). Again, it is evident that blacks were fighting against whites who wanted to lynch Dick Rowland because he was black, and this was a trend that was taking its toll in America. The Tulsa massacre occurred at the time when many black people accused of crimes had been lynched because of racism.

References

Messer, C. M. (2021). Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre. In The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre (pp. 33-53). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, (n.d.), 1921 Tulsa race massacre. Tulsahistory.org.
https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/


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HIS 100 Module Three Activity Template: Historical Context 

Replace the bracketed text below with your responses.

Describe the historical context surrounding your historical event.

The Tulsa race massacre is one of American history’s most famous racial violence. The massacre took place between May 31 to June 1, 1921 (Krehbiel, 2019). It began when the mob from the white race armed with weapons given to them by city officials attacked black residents and destroyed their homes and properties. Businesses of the blacks were not spared during the massacre that occurred in Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma, US. Also known as the Tulsa race riot or the Black Wall Street massacre is considered one of the deadliest terrorist events in American history. More than 35 squire blocks of the wealthiest black communities were destroyed (Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, n.d.). The event began on the memorial day when a 19 years old black shoe shiner Dick Rowland was accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a 17 years old white elevator operator. The event led to 39 deaths, of which 26 were blacks, and 13 were whites.

Describe a key historical figure or group’s participation in your historical event.

The Tulsa race massacre involved two main ethnic groups, the whites and the blacks living in Greenwood District. The blacks were involved in the massacre because of the rumors that spread after Dick Rowland was arrested and taken to custody that whites were surrounding the jail waiting to lynch him (Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, n.d.). Seventy-five black men with weapons went to the jail to ensure that The white mob did not lynch dick, Rowland. The massacre also involved white militants and jail sheriffs who wanted to control the situation and bring culm to the jail premises. Other people involved in the massacre included members of the right and left-wing movements and civil movement leaders (Messer, 2021). It is also clear from the inquest reports of the event that white city officials participated in the massacre by providing weapons to the white mob.

Explain the key historical figure or group’s motivation to participate in your historical event.

Different factors instigated the participants in the Tulsa massacre to participate in the event. Firstly, the black Americans were motivated by the rumors that the white Americans were daring to lynch Dick Rowland, who had been accused of assaulting Sarah Page (Messer, 2021). They wanted to ensure that Dick Rowland was safe in custody. Secondly, the whites were motivated to participate in the following reports in the newspaper that Dick Rowland tried to rape Sarah Page. They were also motivated by the shooting of an old white man shot by a black sheriff at the O. B. when trying to disarm the guard (Krehbiel, 2019). There was an exchange of gunfire, and the event left 10 whites and two blacks dead. These deaths accelerated the riot to other parts of the neighborhood.

Articulate how the historical context caused or influenced your chosen historical event.

The bad blood between the blacks and whites in America has deep historical roots and is race-based. The lynching of the black Americans accused of crimes was prevalent during this period. It resulted in the death of many innocent people who were not given a chance to defend themselves before the judge (Messer, 2021). I chose this event because it provides historical facts on how prejudice directed at black Americans increased the level of racism in American society. It also exposes the root cause of the tension that has prevailed over the years between the blacks and the whites in American society.

Explain how connecting your historical event and current event improves the understanding of your topic.

Racism in America is not new, but it has its roots in history. Historians can best understand the origin of racism in American society if they study historical events such as the Tulsa race massacre (Messer, 2021). The event was not a civil riot, but it was an ethnic clash pegged on the bad blood and malice between the whites and the black races in America (Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, n.d.). Racism is the main reason why the Tulsa race massacre occurred. The event exposes the damages, harms, and dangers associated with racism. The event provides vital facts that inform society why it should work to eliminate racism in America.

References

Krehbiel, R. (2019). Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a massacre. University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved from,
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

Messer, C. M. (2021). Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre. In The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre (pp. 33-53). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum. (n.d.). 1921 Tulsa race massacre. Tulsahistory.org.
https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

HIS 100 Module Two Activity Template: Historical Research Question

This activity is your last chance to choose a topic. Topic changes may be based on your research or instructor feedback. Then write a historical research question that addresses an aspect of your finalized topic. Replace the bracketed text below with your responses. 

Non-graded portion

· Tulsa race massacre

Graded portion: 

Write a clear, relevant, and focused research question about your finalized topic. 

The racial undercurrents currently rocking our society are becoming ever stronger and the rifts that they are leaving in their wake leave us with one question are these past events relevant to today’s society? Through the Tulsa massacre, hoping to point out their relevance in society today. I also hope to find out the significance of these events to today’s society.

Explain how another person’s beliefs, assumptions, and values may lead that person to create a different question than you.

After reading on the Tulsa massacre, it echoed several a few first-hand experiences with racism in my life. One of such experiences that bothers me happened a while back while in a dollar store with my son and cousin who wanted to buy toy guns so that they could play pretend police, as we were at the counter we met a white woman and her son who seemed to like the toy guns my son and cousin had as he thought them to be cool as they made noise and would light up while making the noise. The boy asked his mom if he could have one however, the woman denied the boy’s request saying he would not become a little thug, like my son and cousin.

Based on my personal experiences I do believe that racism is a taught behavior, this comes from several generations of people being told they were better than others based on the color of their skin. I would personally never teach my children that they are better than others solely based on the color of their skin. It would be better to teach them to love and value themselves just as much as they love anyone else.

The Tulsa race massacre is still relevant to modern society today as racism is still prevalent in today’s society the simple fact that there is still a debate on whether the Tulsa incident was a riot or a massacre makes it even more relevant as it is a clear sign that the color of a person’s skin makes others want to treat and judge them differently and try to put them on a lower standard as themselves, to gain an advantage or just to feel better about themselves.

References

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, (n.d.), 1921 Tulsa race massacre. Tulsahistory.org. https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

Messer, C. M. (2021). Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre. In The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre (pp. 33-53). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3

Krehbiel, R. (2019). Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a massacre. University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved from, https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

HIS 100 Module Two Activity Template: Primary and Secondary Sources

Replace the bracketed text below with your responses.

Non-graded portion

· List your historical research topic here: 

· The Tulsa race Massacre

 

Graded portion: 

Distinguish between primary and secondary sources.

Primary sources are often fast hand accounts of an event that were created by people at the time of the event or years later, they come from the individual’s personal histories, journals, and some memoirs. Some of these records can be found in media such as video and audio recordings and artwork, such media include newspaper articles, manuscripts, photographs, videos, and artifacts. Secondary sources on the other hand are often interpretations of primary sources they are mostly information that originate from a different place and are often generalized and analyzed interpretations and synthesis of primary sources of research information

Explain why it is important to consult a variety of sources when conducting historical research. Include specific details and examples.

In research, it is important to consult a variety of sources, this is because consulting other sources invites other people to either provide support or contrast an idea or a topic of discussion. This helps a historical researcher to clarify and expound on each aspect they are studying or analyzing. They also help in giving new insights and dimensions of a topic as one learns more about the issues relating to the topic being researched. Some issues that were important at the time of the subject being studied can still be the same issues that we are being challenged by today. By comparing and contrasting with others one’s explanations become clearer and thorough as the researcher’s perspective will be challenged and refined through other authors and sources. This can be seen in the Tulsa massacre as there were two conflicting stories to the event one of which was adamant that it was a riot while the other insisted that it was a massacre. If a modern researcher unfamiliar with the event were from either side they would be blinded by the perspectives of their side without accepting the other.

Identify one primary source that would help investigate your research question (include the title, author, and link to the source).

Many sources exist on the Tulsa race massacre of 1921 however for a primary source the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum offers a far wider range of research resources than any other. On their website (https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/), they have uploaded all the relevant documents that as newspaper clippings, death reports, letters, and other media sources tired to the event which paint a picture of the issues, facts, and intrigues that make up the story of the event.

Identify one secondary source that would help investigate your research question (include the title, author, and link to the source).

Through the works of Messer and Krehbiel in their works Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3 and Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

I found my secondary sources which may give me a different perspective of the study on the events of June 1st, 1921.

Choose a current event related to the subject of your historical research question and explain how they are connected.

We always say we should learn from the past but in matters of racism, the sentiment seems to have been entirely been forgotten. From the red summer of 1919 to the Tulsa race massacre the events left our societies riddled with injuries and losses however we seem to never learn. Just like the two events the current society has once again been rocked by the same racially violent racial riots caused by a single spark. Just like Eugen Williams and Dick Rowland, George Floyd has become the modern spark that ignited the fuse of systemic racism that has plagued modern society. His death just like the other two victims has caused massive violent riots and just like Tulsa earned a historic title the Racial Reckoning Summer of 2020. The Tulsa race massacre especially echoed in the 2020 murder of Floyd as the whites are the leading social figureheads, the police who made the situation worse. (Roberts, J. D. 2021). Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2021/06/09/pandemics-and-protests-america-has-experienced-racism-like-this-before/

References

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, (n.d.), 1921 Tulsa race massacre. Tulsahistory.org. https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

Messer, C. M. (2021). Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre. In The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre (pp. 33-53). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3

Krehbiel, R. (2019). Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a massacre. University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved from, https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

Roberts, J. D. (2021). Pandemics and protests: America has experienced racism like this before. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2021/06/09/pandemics-and-protests-america-has-experienced-racism-like-this-before/

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