Analyses of Series and Parallel Resonant Filters
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Abstract (objectives)
A brief description of the experiment. The abstract should not exceed four or five sentences.
Introduction
In your own words, explain the reason for performing the experiment and give a concise summary of the theory involved, including any mathematical detail relevant to later discussion in the report.
Conclusions
This section should reflect your understanding of the experiment. Important points to include are a brief discussion of your final results, an interpretation of the actual experimental results as they apply to the objectives of the experiment set out in the introduction should be given. Also discuss any problems encountered and how they were resolved.
Electric Circuits Lab
Instructor: ———–
Analyses of Series and Parallel Resonant Filters
Student Name(s): Click or tap here to enter text.
Click or tap here to enter text.
Honor Pledge:
I pledge to support the Honor System of ECPI. I will refrain from any form of academic dishonesty or deception, such as cheating or plagiarism. I am aware that as a member of the academic community, it is my responsibility to turn in all suspected violators of the honor code. I understand that any failure on my part to support the Honor System will be turned over to a Judicial Review Board for determination. I will report to the Judicial Review Board hearing if summoned.
Date: 1/1/2018
Contents
Abstract 3
Introduction 3
Procedures 3
Data Presentation & Analysis 4
Calculations 4
Required Screenshots 4
Conclusion 4
References 5
Abstract
(This instruction box is to be deleted before submission of the Lab report)
This should include a brief description of all parts of the lab. The abstract should be complete in itself. It should summarize the entire lab; what you did, why you did it, the results, and your conclusion. Think of it as a summary to include all work done. It needs to be succinct yet detailed enough for a person to know what this report deals with in its entirety. Objectives of Week 5 Lab 1: · Build and test series resonant bandpass filters. · Build and test parallel resonant bandstop filters. · Calculate and measure the center frequency and bandwidth of series resonant bandpass filters · Calculate and measure the minimum output voltage for parallel resonant bandstop filters. · Use the Bode analyzer to observe and measure the frequency response of the filters.

Introduction
(This instruction box is to be deleted before submission of the Lab report)
In your own words, explain the reason for performing the experiment and give a concise summary of the theory involved, including any mathematical detail relevant to later discussion in the report. State the objectives of the lab as well as the overall background of the relevant topic. · This lab will review a series bandpass filter at various winding resistances to evaluate the effects of the inductors winding resistance on the center and critical frequencies, as well as bandwidth. After that we will review the output voltage of a parallel bandstop filter at different load resistances to prove that the purely resistive components after the LC parallel connection will not alter the frequency response but can alter the magnitude of the output voltage at the center frequency. 
Procedures
Series Resonant BandPass Filter
Part I. Series Resonant BandPass Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 188 on pages 849850 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 1 in Multisim.
Figure 1. Series Resonant Band Pass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth from Example 188.
Calculate the resonant or center frequency, f0:
Calculate the inductive reactance, XL, at the center frequency f0:
Calculate the total circuit resistance:
Calculate the Q factor:
Finally,
calculate the bandwidth, BW:
4.
Measure the center frequency of the Series Resonant BandPass filter using the Bode plotter as shown in
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Bode Plotter showing the Center or Resonant frequency
(
Note: Connect the Bode Plotter as shown. Set the parameter as shown in the figure as well. Use Set… to set the resolution to 1000. Run the simulation. Use the cursor to find the maximum gain. This point of maximum gain is your center or resonant frequency (f0=107.4 kHz). Also note the gain at the center frequency (0.828 dB). To find the bandwidth you will find the upper and lower critical frequencies where the gain is 3dB from the maximum. In this case we will record the frequencies where the gain is 0.828 dB – 3 dB = 3.828 dB.)
5.
Measure the upper critical frequency as shown in
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Upper critical frequency, f1=116.39 kHz
6.
Measure the lower critical frequency as shown in
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Lower critical frequency, f2 = 98.924 Hz
7.
Subtract the lower critical frequency from the upper critical frequency to find the bandwidth.
8.
Record your findings in
Table 1. (The first row is completed for you.)
9.
Repeat steps 28 using a winding resistance of
Rw = 18 Ω
Table 1. Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth for Bandpass filter
Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
Part II. Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 1812 on pages 855856 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 5 below in Multisim.
Figure 5. Parallel Resonant BandPass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth and minimum output voltage for the example below. The center frequency is:
At the center or resonant frequency:
Use voltagedivider to find the minimum output voltage (magnitude only).
4.
Measure the output gain in dB at the center or resonant frequency using the Bode Plotter as shown in
Figure 6.
Figure 6. Gain at Resonant Frequency
5.
Calculate the minimum output voltage from the definition of voltage gain in decibels (VdB).
6.
Record your results in
Table 2. The first row is completed for you.
Data Presentation & Analysis
RW 
Calculated f0 
Calculated BW 
Measured f0 
Upper Critical Frequency f1 
Lower Critical Frequency f2 
Measured BW f1f2 
10 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
17.5 kHz 
107.4 kHz 
116.39 kHz 
98.824 kHz 
17.47 kHz 
18 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
18.76 kHz 
107.399kHz 
117.079kHz 
98.342kHz 
18.737kHz 
Table 1: Calculated and measured values
RL 
Calculated Center Frequency 
Measured Center Frequency 
Calculated Vout(min) 
Measured Vout(min) 
560 Ω 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.18 V 
1.18 V 
1.0 kΩ 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.92V 
1.94 V 
Table 2: Calculated and measured values
Calculations
Part 1 Step 3=
Part 2 Step 3=
Required Screenshots
Part 1 Series Resonant BandPass Filter
Figure 2. Bode Plotter showing the Center or Resonant frequency
Figure 3. Upper critical frequency
Figure 4. Lower critical frequency
Part 2 Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
Figure 6
Gain at Resonant Frequency
Conclusion
(This instruction box is to be deleted before submission of the Lab report) What is a Conclusion? This section should reflect your understanding of the experiment conducted. Important points to include are a brief discussion of your results, and an interpretation of the actual experimental results as they apply to the objectives of the experiment set out in the introduction should be given. Also, discuss any problems encountered and how they were resolved. Address the following in your conclusions: · What did you notice about the cutoff frequencies for the lowpass and highpass filters containing the same circuit elements? · What voltage level does a gain of 3dB correspond to? · What did you notice about the phase angle of the lowpass filters? Of the highpass filters? · Explain the above results in terms of circuit configurations (lead and lag circuits). · How did changing the resistance change the cutoff frequency of the RL LPF? Of the RL HPF? Of the RC LPF? Of the RL HPF? · How did changing the inductance change the cutoff frequency of the RL LPF? Of the RL HPF? · How did changing the capacitance change the cutoff frequency of the RC LPF? Of the RC HPL? 
References
(This instruction box is to be deleted before submission of the Lab report) What is a Reference Section? This section should list all sources used in the completion of the lab report using APA format. At a minimum, you should include your book and your instructor’s notes and videos. Be sure to list all sources to avoid plagiarism.

Floyd, T. L., & Buchla, D. M. (2019).
Principles of Electric Circuits (10th Edition). Pearson Education (US).
https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9780134880068
National Instruments. (2019, April 3). Multisim Education Edition Version (14.2.0).
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Electric Circuits Lab
Analyses of Series and Parallel Resonant Filters
I.
Objectives:
After completing this lab experiment using, you should be able to:
1. Build and test series resonant bandpass filters.
2. Build and test parallel resonant bandstop filters.
3. Calculate and measure the center frequency and bandwidth of series resonant bandpass filters
4. Calculate and measure the minimum output voltage for parallel resonant bandstop filters.
5. Use the Bode analyzer to observe and measure the frequency response of the filters.
II.
Parts List:
1. Resistor 8 Ω, 10 Ω, 18 Ω, 100 Ω, 560 Ω, 1 kΩ.
2. Inductor 5 µH, 1.0 mH.
3. Capacitor 2.2nF (0.0022 µF), 150 pF
4. Voltage Power Source 10 VRMS.
5. Bode Plotter
III.
Procedures:
Series Resonant BandPass Filter
Part I. Series Resonant BandPass Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 188 on pages 849850 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 1 in Multisim.
Figure 1. Series Resonant Band Pass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth from Example 188.
Calculate the resonant or center frequency, f0:
Calculate the inductive reactance, XL, at the center frequency f0:
Calculate the total circuit resistance:
Calculate the Q factor:
Finally,
calculate the bandwidth, BW:
4.
Measure the center frequency of the Series Resonant BandPass filter using the Bode plotter as shown in
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Bode Plotter showing the Center or Resonant frequency
(
Note: Connect the Bode Plotter as shown. Set the parameter as shown in the figure as well. Use Set… to set the resolution to 1000. Run the simulation. Use the cursor to find the maximum gain. This point of maximum gain is your center or resonant frequency (f0=107.4 kHz). Also note the gain at the center frequency (0.828 dB). To find the bandwidth you will find the upper and lower critical frequencies where the gain is 3dB from the maximum. In this case we will record the frequencies where the gain is 0.828 dB – 3 dB = 3.828 dB.)
5.
Measure the upper critical frequency as shown in
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Upper critical frequency, f1=116.39 kHz
6.
Measure the lower critical frequency as shown in
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Lower critical frequency, f2 = 98.924 Hz
7.
Subtract the lower critical frequency from the upper critical frequency to find the bandwidth.
8.
Record your findings in
Table 1. (The first row is completed for you.)
9.
Repeat steps 28 using a winding resistance of
Rw = 18 Ω
RW 
Calculated f0 
Calculated BW 
Measured f0 
Upper Critical Frequency f1 
Lower Critical Frequency f2 
Measured BW f1f2 
10 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
17.5 kHz 
107.4 kHz 
116.39 kHz 
98.824 kHz 
17.47 kHz 
18 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
18.76 kHz 
107.399kHz 
117.079kHz 
98.342kHz 
18.737kHz 
Table 1. Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth for Bandpass filter
Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
Part II. Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 1812 on pages 855856 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 5 below in Multisim.
Figure 5. Parallel Resonant BandPass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth and minimum output voltage for the example below. The center frequency is:
At the center or resonant frequency:
Use voltagedivider to find the minimum output voltage (magnitude only).
4.
Measure the output gain in dB at the center or resonant frequency using the Bode Plotter as shown in
Figure 6.
Figure 6. Gain at Resonant Frequency
5.
Calculate the minimum output voltage from the definition of voltage gain in decibels (VdB).
6.
Record your results in
Table 2. The first row is completed for you.
RL 
Calculated Center Frequency 
Measured Center Frequency 
Calculated Vout(min) 
Measured Vout(min) 
560 Ω 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.18 V 
1.18 V 
1.0 kΩ 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.92V 
1.94 V 
Table 2. Calculated and Measured Minimum Output Voltage
7.
Repeat steps 16 using RL = 1.0 kΩ.
IV.
References:
Floyd, T. L., & Buchla, D. M. (2019). Principles of Electric Circuits (10th Edition). Pearson Education (US).
https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9780134880068
National Instruments. (2019, April 3). Multisim Education Edition Version (14.2.0).
10
image1.png
image2.png
image3.png
image4.png
image5.png
image6.png
Electric Circuits Lab
Analyses of Series and Parallel Resonant Filters
I.
Objectives:
After completing this lab experiment using, you should be able to:
1. Build and test series resonant bandpass filters.
2. Build and test parallel resonant bandstop filters.
3. Calculate and measure the center frequency and bandwidth of series resonant bandpass filters
4. Calculate and measure the minimum output voltage for parallel resonant bandstop filters.
5. Use the Bode analyzer to observe and measure the frequency response of the filters.
II.
Parts List:
1. Resistor 8 Ω, 10 Ω, 18 Ω, 100 Ω, 560 Ω, 1 kΩ.
2. Inductor 5 µH, 1.0 mH.
3. Capacitor 2.2nF (0.0022 µF), 150 pF
4. Voltage Power Source 10 VRMS.
5. Bode Plotter
III.
Procedures:
Series Resonant BandPass Filter
Part I. Series Resonant BandPass Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 188 on pages 849850 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 1 in Multisim.
Figure 1. Series Resonant Band Pass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth from Example 188.
Calculate the resonant or center frequency, f0:
Calculate the inductive reactance, XL, at the center frequency f0:
Calculate the total circuit resistance:
Calculate the Q factor:
Finally,
calculate the bandwidth, BW:
4.
Measure the center frequency of the Series Resonant BandPass filter using the Bode plotter as shown in
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Bode Plotter showing the Center or Resonant frequency
(
Note: Connect the Bode Plotter as shown. Set the parameter as shown in the figure as well. Use Set… to set the resolution to 1000. Run the simulation. Use the cursor to find the maximum gain. This point of maximum gain is your center or resonant frequency (f0=107.4 kHz). Also note the gain at the center frequency (0.828 dB). To find the bandwidth you will find the upper and lower critical frequencies where the gain is 3dB from the maximum. In this case we will record the frequencies where the gain is 0.828 dB – 3 dB = 3.828 dB.)
5.
Measure the upper critical frequency as shown in
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Upper critical frequency, f1=116.39 kHz
6.
Measure the lower critical frequency as shown in
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Lower critical frequency, f2 = 98.924 Hz
7.
Subtract the lower critical frequency from the upper critical frequency to find the bandwidth.
8.
Record your findings in
Table 1. (The first row is completed for you.)
9.
Repeat steps 28 using a winding resistance of
Rw = 18 Ω
RW 
Calculated f0 
Calculated BW 
Measured f0 
Upper Critical Frequency f1 
Lower Critical Frequency f2 
Measured BW f1f2 
10 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
17.5 kHz 
107.4 kHz 
116.39 kHz 
98.824 kHz 
17.47 kHz 
18 Ω 
107.3 kHz 
18.76 kHz 
107.399kHz 
117.079kHz 
98.342kHz 
18.737kHz 
Table 1. Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth for Bandpass filter
Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
Part II. Parallel Resonant BandStop Filter
1.
Review the solution to Example 1812 on pages 855856 in your textbook.
2.
Construct the circuit in
Figure 5 below in Multisim.
Figure 5. Parallel Resonant BandPass Filter
3.
Verify the following calculations for bandwidth and minimum output voltage for the example below. The center frequency is:
At the center or resonant frequency:
Use voltagedivider to find the minimum output voltage (magnitude only).
4.
Measure the output gain in dB at the center or resonant frequency using the Bode Plotter as shown in
Figure 6.
Figure 6. Gain at Resonant Frequency
5.
Calculate the minimum output voltage from the definition of voltage gain in decibels (VdB).
6.
Record your results in
Table 2. The first row is completed for you.
RL 
Calculated Center Frequency 
Measured Center Frequency 
Calculated Vout(min) 
Measured Vout(min) 
560 Ω 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.18 V 
1.18 V 
1.0 kΩ 
5.81 MHz 
5.808 MHz 
1.92V 
1.94 V 
Table 2. Calculated and Measured Minimum Output Voltage
7.
Repeat steps 16 using RL = 1.0 kΩ.
IV.
References:
Floyd, T. L., & Buchla, D. M. (2019). Principles of Electric Circuits (10th Edition). Pearson Education (US).
https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9780134880068
National Instruments. (2019, April 3). Multisim Education Edition Version (14.2.0).
10
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