biology study guide micro

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BIOLOGY 152; STUDY GUIDE: UNIT 9

principles of disease and epidemiology

Reading: Chapter 14,15

Define the following terms:

communicable disease sporadic disease fomite

etiologic agent endemic disease incidence

pathogenicity epidemic disease prevalence

sepsis pandemic disease mortality

septicemia local infection

symptom sign

toxemia systemic infection

viremia focal infection

bacteremia zoonoses

Answer the following questions:

  1. Describe the difference between a true pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen. Give an example of each. Describe 3 opportunities that an opportunistic bacterium might seize to cause infection.
  1. What is a virulence factor? Describe the importance of adhesion, the role of toxins (including endotoxins and exotoxins) antiphagocytic factors, and extracellular enzymes in causing disease.
  1. Describe the stages of disease (course of infection). During which stage(s) can a person be contagious?
  1. Review Koch’s postulates. What exceptions to Koch’s postulates are you aware of?
  1. What is the difference between a primary and a secondary infection?
  1. What types of factors will predispose a body to disease?
  1. Compare and contrast acute, chronic, subacute, and latent disease. Describe at least one example of a disease that falls in each category.
  1. What are the three major groups of disease reservoirs?
  1. Compare and contrast the three methods of contact transmission.
  1. What is vehicle transmission? Provide 3 examples of vehicle transmission.
  1. What is a vector? In what two ways can a vector transmit disease?
  1. What is a nosocomial infection? What factors affect transmission of nosocomial infections? What sites are most likely to be affected by nosocomial infections? What are the most effective ways to control these infections? What are some of the main organisms currently involved in nosocomial infections?
  1. What is epidemiology? What does an epidemiologist do?
  1. What is the CDC? What is its function?
  1. Describe the steps of phagocytosis. How can microbes avoid being phagocytosed?

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