My answers are in bold or bold/italicized. Are they correct?

My answers are in bold or bold/italicized. Are they correct?

Question 1

All of the following were major reasons behind the paradigm shift in psychology known as “the Cognitive Revolution,” EXCEPT

flaws in the behaviorist perspectives on language acquisition

the development of the computer and the information processing model of cognition

the findings of scientists during WWII research on improving soldier performance, particularly those involving attention

B.F. Skinner’s development of operant conditioning

Question 2

In general, all the mental processes that we refer to generally as cognition could be described as taking sensory input/information from the environment and

selecting specific aspects of that sensory information.

storing information away, allowing to retrieve and use it later.

transduction of our sensory information.

all of the above

Question 3

In general, both hemispheres of the brain are involved in complex processing. However, each hemisphere has a role to play. While the ___ hemisphere is responsible for processing the local aspect of the stimuli (ex: putting together the features of a human face), the ___ hemisphere is responsible for processing the global aspect of the stimuli (ex: recognizing a feature of a complex object).

anterior; posterior

right; left

left; right

ventral; dorsal

Question 4

The large sulcus known as the ____ fissure separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe. 

lateral

Question 5

Joe has been recently diagnosed with a brain damage disorder known as ____, which is primarily characterized by his inability to recognize faces (even his own).

prosopagnosia

Question 6

Mistakes in word reading can and do occur under a feature-net model of recognition. This results because the feature net (like the actual human brain) encourages _____ over _____.

efficiency; accuracy

bottom-up processing; top-down processing

laziness; hard work

accuracy; efficiency

Question 7

The ____ hypothesis for attention states that one CAN process some information coming from an unattended channel (such as identifying a change from a male to a female voice).

early-selection

endogenous

late-selection

exogenous

Question 8

According to the Multiple Resource Theory, two tasks will NOT interfere with each other IF

the total number of resources required by both tasks exceeds the available resources

both tasks are not well practiced

one task is very complex and difficult while the other is moderately difficult

both tasks are easy

Question 9

The operations through which we gain, retain, and later use that knowledge are often divided into three categories/processes. Which of the following is NOT one of those categories?

retrieval

storage

selection

encoding

Question 10

Imagine you are shown the word “DOG” and asked one of the following questions about that word. According to the principles of elaborative encoding, which of the following questions is going to lead to the best memory performance?

Does it fit into the sentence: “The speeding car swung around the corner, music blaring, and screeched to a halt before seeing the ______.”

Does it fit into the sentence, “The _____ fetches the ball”?

Does it rhyme with “FROG”?

Does it contain an “K”?

Question 11

By using leading questions and misinformation, researchers have been able to

shape how participants remember the sequence of actions in the event, but they have been unable to change how participants remember the details of an event.

alter virtually any aspect of participants’ memories and have even been able to create memories for entire events that never took place.

shape how a real event is remembered, but they have been unable to lead participants into remembering an event that never took place.

shape how participants remember the people who participated in an event, but they have been unable to influence how participants remember the objects present as an event unfolded

Question 12

The famous patient H. M. was unable to remember events he experienced after his brain surgery. The surgery apparently resulted in him developing a specific type of amnesia. However, since H.M. did not lose his memory for events that occurred before the surgery he DID NOT suffer from _____ amnesia.

retrograde

Question 13

You are asked to “Name all of the professions that you can think of.” According to Rosch’s evidence on categorization levels, you are LEAST likely to respond,

t

eacher, lawyer, doctor, firefighter . . .

manager, store clerk, secretary…

professor, doctor, police officer..

first grade teacher, neonatal nurse, psychology professor . . .

Question 14

When making a decision to categorize an object, the major theories based on resemblance (i.e., prototype theory) state that members of a category are assigned based on a/an ______ membership.

fuzzy

graded

superordinate

subordinate

Question 15

Studies involving the scanning of a memorized mental image of a map indicate that

participants’ scanning rate is slow for short distances but is faster for greater distances.

the greater the distance on the map covered, the longer the time to scan it and respond.

the fastest scanning times tend to be obtained with moderate scanning distances.

participants are able to scan across their image virtually instantaneously.

Question 16

Bob is shown two complex three-dimensional images (A and B) and asked to determine if the images are identical. The images are aligned in different planes, so answering the question requires mentally rotating one of the images. Which of the following statements about Bob’s task is TRUE?

The smaller the degree of rotation required, the less amount of time it will take to respond to the question.

The time it takes will be the same, regardless of the required rotation.

The larger the required the rotation, the faster responding will be.

The smaller the required rotation, the slower responding will be.

Question 17

Mary, after her accident, has recently been diagnosed with ____, which is primarily characterized by her inability to read irregular words properly (ex: “colonel”) AND her need to sound out ALL words that she encounters.

lexical agraphia

Question 18

The sentences, “David strummed his guitar,” and “The strumming of the guitar was due to David,” have a the SAME ______ structure.

Deep

Question 19

Jane is in the midst of a clinical episode of major depressive disorder. She tends to either point out and/or show a heightened response to all of the negative events going on around her (ex: the bad weather this week). According to research on depression, Jane is demonstrating a ____ bias.

hypopositivity

hypernegativity

general response reduction

none of the above

Question 20

Scott is a manager at his company and is put in charge of hiring a new employee. While there are several impressive candidates, Scott knows that the last employee he hired is doing very well. Thus he decides to go with the job candidate who is most similar to that recent hire. This is an example of a biased judgment relying on

illusory covariation.

anchoring.

representativeness.

the availability heuristic.

Question 21

Which of the following is NOT an example of a prosodic factor?

A person’s production of the final phoneme in one word is altered to make it easier to form the first phoneme of the next word.

Someone saying the word, “comprehension,” but it sounds odd given that they emphasized the “com” (ex: It sounds like “COM-prehension”).

Increasing the pitch on the final word of a statement to imply that it’s actually a question.

Saying, “I’m really impressed,” to another person but the manner in which you state it makes it seem insincere.

Question 22

If Lucy has brain damage and suddenly cannot spell (written or orally) an irregular word, such as “yacht”, she is likely to have _____ agraphia. David, who also recently was in an accident resulting in brain damage, can only read words that he previously learned prior to the accident and cannot attempt to sound them out. David is likely to have _____ alexia.

phonological; lexical

lexical; phonological

phonological; surface

non-lexical; lexical

Question 23

According to research on problem-solving, which is the BEST example of experts advantage over novices?

Experts only understand the “surface structure” of the problem they are tackling.

Experts often have functional fixedness in both their thinking/approach and the use of necessary tools.

Experts have the experience to be able to use analogical problem-solving in many instances.

Experts are less likely to have to resort to means-end analysis.

Question 24

A cognition-focused emotional regulation strategy known as _______, can be explained via the slow pathway of amygdala activity whereby further processing of the sensory information AND taking into account the context of the event/stimulus permits the higher cortical areas to influence the initial amygdala activity. This regulation would allow for complete reinterpretation of the event and re-evaluation of the initial emotional response (Ex: “It could’ve been worse!”).

Cognitive Reappraisal 

Question 25

One of the fundamental issues & themes discussed throughout the semester is top-down and bottom-up processing. Demonstrate your understanding of this vital aspect of cognition by briefly explaining how top-down AND bottom-up processes account for the phonemic restoration effect.

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