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Q:Given what we have discussed this semester and this week’s reading, discuss your thoughts on the evolving causes of crises. How do you see the described changes impacting humanitarian aid? How would you prepare and respond to this changing landscape?

1)) Evolving Causes of Crises


Every year disasters take lives, cause significant damage, inhibit development and contribute to conflict and forced migration. I think there are several causes of crises, for example, natural disasters, conflicts, and famine. In South Sudan, the main reason was a political conflict ranging from ethnic tensions, management of oil resources and the power struggle. Political conflict, compounded by economic woes and drought, has caused massive displacement, raging violence, and dire food shortages. Over seven million people about two-thirds of the population are in need of aid, including around 6.9 million people experiencing hunger. Food security is expected to deteriorate more, with 7.7 million people estimated to face crisis levels of hunger with the onset of the July to August lean season, the period of time between harvests when food stores are low.

Impact of Various Changes to Humanitarian Aid

South Sudan should be a country full of hope. South Sudan has received significant humanitarian aid from the United States and the international community for decades. Since 2011, total humanitarian funding surpassed $9.5 billion, most of which have been part of the coordinated South Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan

Response to Changing Landscape

Although many of South Sudan’s access issues have political roots and solutions, these challenges are exacerbated by the fact that as much as 70 percent of the country is inaccessible by road during the rainy season, which typically lasts from June through September.14 Infrastructure, in general, has been a significant access constraint—as has the ubiquity of landmines and unexploded ordinance—in South Sudan for decades and continues to be one today.Moreover, one of the changes that have occurred is 200,000 people at least have sought refuge in ‘Protection of Civilian’ areas, distinct safe areas within UN peacekeeping bases. Although these areas were intended to provide short-term refuge, ongoing protection threats outside the bases mean that many of the displaced have been sheltering in them since the current conflict began.

Falcao, V, Fox, F. (2015) Better not just bigger: reflections on the humanitarian response in South Sudan. Humanitarian Practice Network. Retrieved from: https://odihpn.org/magazine/better-not-just-bigger…

2))The increase in the contemporary crises in the global world rotates around political and economic sectors. In the political sector, there has been an increase in government policies that do not favor citizens (Howe, 2016). Corruption has also increased, and the rights and freedom of citizens are not respected. Additionally, many governments have made many promises that go unmet. This means that there is a high rate of propaganda that is used as a mechanism for winning the public. The rate of unemployment has also increased, making most people suffer beyond their endurance capacity (Bauerle Danzman, Winecoff, & Oatley, 2017). Moreover, there is an increase in the war between and among communities, political parties, and countries. All these factors have led to an increased rate of crises among different countries. In my opinion, these causes of crises can be dealt with if international organizations and efficient strategies are engaged in the affected sectors. Good governance can also enhance the reduction of these crises.

Humanitarian aid is being impacted by adverse conditions in the targeted sectors. For example, issues of insecurity have made many potential humanitarian organizations from helping the affected populations (Howe, 2016). Unfavorable government policies and lack of political intervention have also hindered the aid provided by humanitarian organizations. Many governments have assumed that the humanitarian organizations and groups would take full responsibility and care of the crises (Howe, 2016). Therefore, they have sat back and relaxed, yet the small humanitarian aid provided to the affected people is not enough. There is a need to ensure that all humanitarian aid is welcome, making sure that the highest benefit goes to the largest population in the country (Barnett & Walker, 2015). Governments should also get involved in tackling crises that arise, rather than leaving everything on the hands of the humanitarian groups and organizations.

In these changing landscapes, I would prepare by mobilizing a team of humanitarianism, involving local organizations, international organizations, and the government. If possible, I would also engage influential individuals who have the potential of contributing significantly to the crises. In this way, there would be a pool of resources that are ready for countering crises and their related challenges. Additionally, there would be a creation of a decisive strategy that is reinforced by every member of the pool (Dabla-Norris, Kochhar, Suphaphiphat, Ricka, & Tsounta, 2015). This would ensure that all causes of crises and the barriers to the effective management of the crises are done away with.

References

Barnett, M., & Walker, P. (2015). Regime Change for Humanitarian Aid: How to make relief more accountable. Foreign Affairs, 94(4), 130-141.

Bauerle Danzman, S., Winecoff, W. K., & Oatley, T. (2017). All crises are global: Capital cycles in an imbalanced international political economy. International Studies Quarterly, 61(4), 907-923.

Dabla-Norris, M. E., Kochhar, M. K., Suphaphiphat, M. N., Ricka, M. F., & Tsounta, E. (2015). Causes and consequences of income inequality: A global perspective. International Monetary Fund.

Yayboke, E.(2018). Accessing South Sudan: Humanitarian Aid in a Time of Crisis. CSIS. Retrieved from: https://www.csis.org/analysis/accessing-south-suda…

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