Consider the following situation. A father holds a small orange ball in his hands. His year old daughter, Ana, stretches her arms toward the ball, a…

Consider the following situation. A father holds a small orange ball in his hands. His year old daughter, Ana, stretches her arms toward the ball, a behavior that in the past got her the ball. This time the father does not give her the ball. Instead, he says loudly, “Ana, say Give.” Having learned to imitate simple words before, Ana repeats Give and immediately receives the ball. A few seconds later, the father holds the ball and again refuses to give it to Ana when she simply stretches her arms. He says in in a low voice Give, and when Ana repeats the word, he gives her the ball. On a third trial, while holding the ball, the father whispers Give. Ana receives the ball when she says Give. On a fourth trial, the father simply moves his lips as if saying Give, but no sound is produced. Again, Ana get the ball when she says Give. Finally, the father holds the ball without providing any verbal prompts. After a few seconds, Ana says Give and the father responds to her request. The following day, when the father played with Ana, she was given the ball only after she said Give.

Describe all the principles of learning in the above interaction. Be careful to identify and explain clearly each element of the principle (e.g., response, consequences, contingencies of reinforcement, S+, S-, etc).

What do you think Ana would do if you tried to play this game with her?

Explain your answer with reference to stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination.

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