15. In biological evolution, the unit of transmission is a gene. In cultural evolution, the unit of transmission is an idea. Comparing biological and cultural evolution, which of the following is FALSE?
a) The unit of transmission is copied with a high degree of fidelity in one type of evolution, but not the other.
b) The unit of transmission in both types of evolution enjoy a selective advantage.
c) In only one type of evolution can its unit of transmission be transmitted horizontally.
d) Mutations are more common with one type of evolution than the other.
e) The unit of transmission for both types of evolution must be adaptive to be transmitted.
16. Which of the following is true in comparing biological evolution with cultural evolution?
a) Both types of evolution occur extremely quickly, within a single generation.
b) Biological evolution is faithful, while cultural evolution is not faithful.
c) Both forms of evolution only result in greater numbers of surviving offspring.
d) Biological evolution is quicker than cultural evolution because the possibility of horizontal cultural transmission from multiple people overwhelms learners.
e) Biological evolution leads to more useful ideas than cultural evolution does.
17. Based on research about cultural transmission, which of the following YouTube advertisements is the LEAST likely to be spread to other people?
a) a car commercial that was extremely weird and did not feature any cars
b) a home renovation company’s advertisement that contains useful tips on how to do home repairs
c) a fraternity’s recruitment advertisement that is full of racial stereotypes
d) an insurance company’s advertisement that induces a lot of fearful emotions for the audience
e) a mayor’s election campaign video using clear, succinct points describing her platform
18. A few townsfolk begin a movement promoting social harmony. Over time, they expand the movement by interacting with other townsfolk. Soon, they have influenced the whole town to join in the movement. This best illustrates which of the following?
a) Shweder’s definition of cultural psychology
b) Triandis’s individualism-collectivism model
c) Latané’s dynamic social impact theory
d) cultural evolution
e) vertical cultural transmission
19. Army recruits are assigned randomly into specific sleeping quarters, where they do a lot of socializing during break time and at night. The political and religious attitudes of the recruits were surveyed before they were assigned sleeping quarters, and then again after several weeks of training. The generals found that the recruits’ political and religious ideas tended to form clusters based on sleeping quarters. Which of the following can best explain this situation?
a) Useful ideas spread more easily.
b) Minimally intuitive ideas are more transmittable.
c) People in close quarters and contact tend to influence each other.
d) Early conditions have disproportionate influences.
e) Small differences lead to large effects.
20. Dynamic social impact theory can explain why
a) cultural norms for manners have changed over time.
b) residents of one community have more conservative political attitudes than residents of a nearby community.
c) Pizarro and a small band of Spanish soldiers were able to conquer the Incan empire.
d) cultural evolution can occur much faster than biological evolution.
e) people score higher on IQ tests today than they did a generation ago.