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Running head: GUIDED IMAGERY AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION

2

1

Title of Paper in Bold Centered

Student Name

American Public University

COURSE####: Course Title

Instructor Name

Due Date

Repeat the Title – Level 1 Header

Hit the tab key one time to begin the main body of the paper. The paragraphs of the main document are indented. The computer will wrap your text for you based upon the margin settings established by this document template. It is not necessary for you to hit the Enter or return key at the end of a line of text. Only hit the enter key (one time) when you reach the end of a paragraph.

Then hit the tab key to indent and then continue typing the paper. In APA any source that you use in your paper must have an in-text citation. In APA these citations include the author’s last name and the year of the publication in parentheses (Name, Year).

Level 2 Header use: Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading

Sub-section your essay using sub-headers in the same sequence you introduced your topic in your lead paragraph, your thesis.


Level 3 Header use: Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading

The more lengthy or complex your essay, the potential for using additional Level Headers; notice the subtle difference. One tip for any submission, always double-check the font choice is consistent throughout the essay.

Conclusion – Level 1 Header

Begin to summarize the main points of your topic in three to five sentences. The conclusion of your paper should re-phrase the points of what your reader should be left remembering, nothing new, concise and to the point.

References – Level 1 Header

Lastname, C. (2008). Title of the source without caps except Proper Nouns or: First word after colon.
The Journal or Publication Italicized and Capped, Vol#(Issue#), Page numbers.

SEE APA GUIDELINES FOR PROPER CITATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOURCES.

Provided by Dr. Jill Fuson & Dr. Doris Blanton, American Public University System (April, 2020). Information

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 7th ed., S.L., American Psychological Assoc., 2019

***In-text citation: (Publication Manual Of The American Psychological Association.)

3/19/2020

APA 7TH ED.
GUIDELINES

New Seventh Edition

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 1

2019

The Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association has recently
updated the widely referenced Manual to a
Seventh Edition. Updated for simplified,
condensed material while retaining and
strengthening the basic rules of APA.

American Public University

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 2

APA 7th ed. Guidelines
N E W G U I D E L I N E S S E V E N T H E D I T I O N 2 0 1 9

In today’s fast growing technological world, new inventions have altered the manner in which we gather

report and perform scientific research. Thus, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological

Association updated the widely referenced Manual to a Seventh Edition, which simplifies, condenses,

and meets the needs of users in mind. This edition promotes accessibility for everyone, including Web

Content Accessibility Guidelines while also concentrating on the Basic Elements of APA writing.

October 2019, the American Psychological Association released its seventh edition of the Publication

Manual of the American Psychological Association, with modifications to APA Style writing, sources, &

structure.

As you continue your higher education, you are faced with different writing styles. This reference guide

will concentrate on the basic principles of APA style as it applies to writing term (research) papers and

essays. This reference guide will provide helpful tips and suggestions to assist in producing a scholarly

term paper or essay using APA formatting and style guidelines.

CHANGES TO THE NEW APA EDITION

 Citing online material

 Use of inclusive & bias-free language

 References & in-text citations are easier and clearer

 APA diversity for paper guidelines professionally or academically created

 Better explained guidelines for mechanics

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 3

APA MANUAL 7TH EDITION: THE MOST NOTABLE CHANGES
Date published October 11, 2019 by Raimo Streefkerk. Date updated: November 5, 2019

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA
Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.

In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common

 the use of inclusive

 bias-free language is increasingly important

 technology used by researchers and students has changed

The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. This
article outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.

REFERENCES AND IN-TEXT CITATIONS IN APA STYLE
 When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online

sources easier and clearer.

 In total, 114 examples are provided, ranging from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and

social media. For each reference category an easy template is provided that helps you to

understand and apply the citation guidelines. The biggest changes in the 7th edition are:

1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference. Instead of “New York, NY:

McGraw-Hill” it’s just “McGraw-Hill.” (9.29)

2. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first

citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”. (8.17)

3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.

(9.8)

4. DOIs are formatted as urls (https://doi.org/xxx). The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary. (DOI)

5. URLs are embedded directly in the reference, without being preceded by “Retrieved from,”

unless a retrieval date is needed.

6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.

(10.2)

7. Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors that are not an author or editor. For

example, when citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; for a TV

series episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited. (Table 10.15)

8. Dozens of examples are included for online source types such as podcast episodes, social

media posts, and YouTube videos. Also, the use of emojis and hashtags is explained. (Table

10.15)

INCLUSIVE AND BIAS-FREE LANGUAGE (5.1-5.10)
Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a
separate chapter on this topic.

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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The guidelines provided by APA help authors to reduce bias around topics such as gender, age,
disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels. Some
examples are:

9. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.

10. Descriptive phrases such as “people living in poverty” are preferred over adjectives as nouns to

label people (e.g., “the poor”).

11. Instead of broad categories (e.g., over 65 years old), you should use exact age ranges (e.g., 65-

75) that are more relevant and specific.

APA PAPER FORMAT
In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student
papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:

12. Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode

10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11. (2.19)

13. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now

contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title. (2.2-Sample)

14. The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise).

15. Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability. (Table 2.3)

MECHANICS OF STYLE
In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better
explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:

16. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence. (6.1)

17. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of the

singular pronoun “they”) instead of italics. (6.22-6.23)

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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WHY APA?

APA (Seventh Edition) provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication, helping authors
present ideas clearly, concisely, and in an organization manner. Uniformity and consistency enable
writers and readers to:

a) Focus on ideas being presented vs. formatting
b) Scan works quickly for key points, findings, sources

APA style guidelines encourage writers to disclose essential information allowing readers to dispense
with minor distractions i.e.

1) Inconsistencies or omissions in punctuation
2) Capitalization
3) Reference citations
4) Presentation of statistics (p. xvii)

APA 7th ed. broadened its audience of consultants of not only by psychologists but also students and
researchers in many fields such as business, education, social work, nursing and many other
behavioral and social sciences. The scope and length of the APA manual has grown in the response to
the needs of researchers, students, and educators across disciplines.

(2.2) APA BASIC/MINIMUM STUDENT PAPER ELEMENTS:

Student papers, narrative essays, literature review, usually include:

 The cover page or title page (Sections 2.3-2.6)

 Text of the paper (Section 2.11)

 Reference page (Section 2.12)

 Page numbers (Section 2.18)

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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(2.3) COVER PAGE/TITLE PAGE

APA Manuscript elements of the title page:

The Seventh Edition has revised the Title Page to consist of seven elements: page number, paper title,
author, affiliation, Course, Instructor, Due date (2.2 – Sample Student Title Page).

1. Title (in title case 6.17) bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page, 3-4
lines down from top margin (2.4) added space for the next element is not required

2. Author name first name, middle initial, last name. No titles or degrees are used (Dr. or Ph.D.)
(1.22)

3. Under the author’s name is the institutional affiliation – American Public University (2.6)

4. Next is the Course number – Course name

5. Instructor name

6. Due date (month date year)

7. Page numbers (2.18)

***For Student Papers there is no requirement
for a Running head in the header.

Page number in the header flush right

Title of the paper in bold

Added space

Student/Author name
Course #
Affiliation
Instructor
Due date

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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(2.11) TEXT OF THE PAPER

Format, the text should start on a new page after the title page and after the title of the paper in title
case, bold, and centered.

The text left-aligned, double-spaced paragraphs, the first line of each paragraph indented by one tab
key (0.5 in.; Section 2.23-2.24). Use headings as needed to separate sections and reflect the
organizational structure of content (Section 2.26-2.27). Do not start a new page or add extra line
breaks when a new heading occurs; each section of the text should follow the next without a break.

BASIC APA WRITING COMPONENTS

• (2.3) Title page: Use APA format (see example above)

• (2.4) Title: Name your paper. The title can “hook” your readers. The title should summarize the
main idea of the paper

• (2.11) Introductory Paragraph: Should summarize the prose of the assignment, introducing

the topic. Pretend the reader has no idea of the topic the paper, concisely elaborate on the
topic. The thesis statement is often the last sentence of the first paragraph, generally a segue
sentence to the body/sub-header (if used) essay

• (2.26) Principles of Organization: The key to writing sound, organized, scholarly structured is
to be clear, precise and logical. Headings in a paper identify the purpose
and aid the reader’s ability to become familiar with the essays content – allows for easier found
information sought.

• (2.27) Heading Levels: The first paragraphs of the paper are understood to be introductory, the
heading “Introduction” is not needed. Do not begin a paper with an “Introduction” heading

• (4.06) Sentence & Paragraph Length: Discuss topic. The number of paragraphs will depend
on the length and complexity of your paper. There is not minimum or maximum sentence length
in APA Style. Overuse of too short or too long sentences results in incomprehensible. Single

 1” margins all the way around

 All text double-spaced

 Every new sentence 1 tab indent
(0.5 inches)

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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sentence paragraphs are abrupt and used infrequently. A new paragraph signals a shift to a
new idea.

WRITING THE PAPER

There are specific guidelines when writing an APA style paper.

 Center the title at the top of page two. The title is written in title case (6.17)

 Double space entire paper (2.21)

 Use 1 inch margins (2.22)

 Text is left aligned (2.23)

 APA Style paper should be written in a font accessible to all users.
o Use the same font throughout the paper (2.19)

 Suggested options

 11-point Calibri

 11-point Arial

 10-point Lucida

 12-point Times New Roman

 11-point Georgia

 Normal 10-point Computer Modern

 First sentence of every paragraph must be indented (2.24)

 Quotes 40 words or more must be in blocked quotation format with no quotation marks and
include the page number in parentheses after the last period (8.27)

(2.12) COMPONENTS OF A REFERENCE PAGE

`

The word ‘References’ (‘Reference if only one source) should appear at the top center of the page in
bold. Entries are double-spaced using a hanging indent.

**Do not list a reference not used in the body of the paper. Similarly, do not include an in-text citation
without a corresponding reference on the reference page.

(3) Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS)

Specialized guidelines developed by APA referred to as JARS outline for authors what information

Page number
Title of page, in bold (References)
Alphabetize
Double-spaced
Hanging Indent

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 9

should be included for journal articles. Primarily authors seeking publication or students conducting
advanced research projects.

Undergraduate or graduate students conducting advanced projects will use JARS. Common reporting
standards for journal articles include the abstract and the introduction.

Undergraduate and graduate students tend to write less complicated research papers; therefore an
abstract or introduction are not requirements (unless by programmatic design).

WRITING TIPS FOR STUDENTS

• Acronyms: Identify acronyms on first use. Example: American Public University (APUS).

• Allow Time Between Drafts: While a break of 24 hours or more is ideal, a thirty minute break
will yield positive results.

• Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand (‘&’) instead of the word “and”
in text of paper. Always use ampersand (&) in tables, captions and on the reference page.

• Awkward Phrasing: Use Standard English phrasing. For example, “try to do” rather than “try
and do,” “we went” rather than “us went.”

• Brainstorming: Before beginning to write, take the time to put ideas down on paper. Mind-
mapping and list-making are two useful brainstorming techniques.

• Commas and Introductory Phrases: Usually commas are placed between an introductory
phrase and the main sentence; however, commas are rarely used to separate a concluding
phrase.

• Complete Sentences: Write in complete sentences and avoid slang. Complete sentences
contain both subjects and verbs. Avoid run on sentences.

• etc.: Avoid using etc. at the end of a list unless it is part of a quotation.

• Extra Time: Quality writing takes time – lots of time. Build in a cushion of extra time.

• Help from Others: Being mindful of plagiarism and academic honesty, request proofreading
help.

• Homonyms: Homonyms are words sounding similar but are spelled differently and have
different definitions. (Example, new and knew; your and you’re; know and no).

• Multiple Drafts: Professional writers create multiple drafts of their writing. You should too.

• Non-words: Ensure all words are Standard English words. (Example, “alot” is not a word).

• Organizing: Plan paper or assignment. This may be as simple as a chronological list of points
or as elaborate as a formal outline.

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 10

• Question Marks and Quotation Marks: Place question marks outside the quotation mark

unless the question mark is part of the quotation.

• Titles of Books and Magazines: Italicize the title of books and magazines.

• Titles of Articles and Chapters: Place the title of articles and chapters of books in quotation
marks to set off when mentioned in text.

• Use Formal Voice: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversations, emails, and
instant messages.

• Flow of Paper: Use transitional words helping maintain the flow of thought. Use a pronoun
referring to a noun in a preceding sentence allows a smooth transition and elevates repetition.
Other words assisting in transition are time links (after, next, since, then, while), cause-effect
links (as a result, consequently, as a result), addition links (furthermore, in addition, moreover,
similarly), and contrast links (although, but, conversely, however, nevertheless). (4.1 – 4.3)

• Anthropomorphism: avoid attributing human characteristics to animals or inanimate sources.
(4.11)

• Verb Tense and Active Voice: Limit shifts in verb tense, and use active voice rather than
passive voice. (4.12)

• Subject-Verb Agreement: Be sure your subject and verb agree. For example, “we are” rather
than “we is,” “they did” rather than “they done.” (4.15)

• Perspective: Use third person point of view when writing research papers (avoiding pronouns
such as I, we, my, our (first person) and you, yours, your, us, we (second person). You should
deal with facts and not opinions, thus providing citations within paper and on reference page.
Focus on the subject itself and not on your feelings about the subject. The use of third person
retains a formal tone in your writing. (4.16)

• Wordiness and Redundancy: Eliminate wordy sentences; get your point across with as few
words as possible eliminating empty words such as “that”. (4.5)

• Sentence and Paragraph Length: Be sure ideas are fully developed in each paragraph. This
usually results in paragraphs of three to five. (4.6)

• Tone: An effective way to achieve the correct tone is write in a way to educate and persuade
the reader. (4.7)

• Full Wording Rather Than Contractions: Convert contractions to their complete word-
partner. (Examples: it’s = it is; won’t = will not; haven’t = have not). (4.8)

• Bias-Free Language: Writing should maintain a stance of inclusivity and respect for all people,
regardless of age, disability, gender, participation in research, racial and ethnic identify, sexual
orientation, socioeconomic status, or intersectionality. Writers should strive to use language free
of bias. Writing should never promote prejudice or demeaning attitudes. (5.1 – 5.10)

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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 Numbers: 0-9 are written out while 10 and above are written as numbers
(Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time be written as words (Example: 1
hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago). (6.32-6.34) Use words for numbers at the
beginning of any sentence. (6.33)

• Semicolon: Semicolons are used to either connect two complete sentences, or to connect a list
with commas. (6.4)

• Colon: Colons should only be used when the introductory phrase is a complete sentence. (6.5)

• No Slash: Use dashes rather than slashes. (6.6)

• Parenthesis: Parentheses are most often used in citations. Before using in other applications,
consult the APA handbook for guidance. (6.8)

• Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote with
quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuation
outside the final parenthesis. (8.26)

Levels of Headings: (Table 2.3 Format for the Five Levels of APA Style)

PARAPHRASING VERSUS DIRECT QUOTES

Paraphrasing is your own rendition of someone else’s information or idea. (8.23)

Parenthetical Citation Example: Many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but
infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (Conner, 2004).

Narrative Citation Example: Conner suggested many people possess knowledge on a multitude
of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (2004).

Direct quote: reproduces words verbatim from an author or source. (8.25)

Level Format

1 Centered, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.

2 Flush Left, Bold, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.

3 Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading
Text begins as a new paragraph.

4 Indented, Bold, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on the same
line and continues as a regular paragraph.

5 Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on the
same line and continues as a regular paragraph.

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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Parenthetical Citation Example: “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the
opportunity to take the time to try them out” (Conner, 2004, p. 161).

Narrative Citation Example: According to Conner (2004) “Many of us understand all sorts of
things but never have the opportunity or take the time to try them out” (p. 161).

Block quotations of 40 words or more. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the
whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. Double space entire quote. (8.27) Do NOT use
quotation marks unless there are quotations within the quotation then use normal quotation
marks not additional ones. You must still give credit for source.
Example (see page 272):

Note periods or commas are within quotation marks when they are part of the quoted material. At end
of quote, place period then page number.

Page number must be given for direct quotes. If no page number is available, cite the paragraph
number using the abbreviation para. (instead of the symbol ¶). If no page or paragraph numbers are
available, cite the heading and paragraph number in which the information is found. (8.28)

WHAT IS A CITATION?

A “citation” is the way you tell readers certain material came from another source. It also gives readers
the information necessary to find the source again, including (8.1 – 8.9):

 information about the author
 the title of the work
 the name and location of the company publishing the source
 the date copy was published
 the page numbers of the material

Why should I site sources?

Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people’s work without
plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:

 Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and
where they came from.

 Not all sources are good or right – your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting
than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else’s
bad ideas.

 Citing sources shows the amount of research you have done.
 Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.

Doesn’t citing sources make my work seem less original?

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 13

Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps the reader distinguish your ideas from those of
your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.

When do I need to site?

Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations
almost always require citation:

 Whenever you use quotes
 Whenever you paraphrase
 Whenever you use an idea someone else has already expressed
 Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
 Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use?

No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Facts
readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered “common
knowledge,” and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paper
without citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, cite your source
just to be safe.

GUIDELINES FOR CITING REFERENCES

In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the author
name and publication date appear in parenthesis. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated
into the text as part of the sentence. (8.11)

Do not include the publisher location in the reference. (9.29)

References are in alphabetical order by author name. (9.44)

If no author, the title takes the place of the author and the reference is alphabetized by the first letter of
the first word of the title i.e., Study finds. (2005). In-text citation, use quotation marks (“Study Finds,”
2005). If work is designated as “Anonymous”, in-text cite and reference list as so. Do not list the author
as anonymous or unknown unless the work is signed “Anonymous” (9.49)

When citing two to 20 provide surnames and initials. For 21 or more authors, include the first 19
authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and then add the final author’s name. (9.8)

In-text citation, for work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For work
with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation. (8.17)

(Table 8.1 Basic In-Text Citation Styles)

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation

One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)

Two Authors (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)

Group author with abbreviation
First citation

Subsequent citations

(National Institute of Mental
Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)

National Institute of Mental
Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group author without
abbreviation

(Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020

When citing periodicals, if the volume number is 22, the issue is 3, and the page range is 23 through
25. Write the information as follows: 22(3), 23-25. Do not use the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss.,or
Pages, p. or pp. (9.25)

Following the author’s name is the publication date. The date (in parentheses) is always the second
part of a reference. (9.4) List the date as follows:

• (year only). For example: (2009).
• (year, month). For example: (2007, January). Note: Do not use month abbreviations.
• (year, month, day). For example: (1998, June 16).
• (range of dates (e.g., range of years, range of exact dates) (9.13)
• (n.d.). Use n.d. for works without a publication date (9.17)

Capitalize only the first word of titles, proper nouns (such as names of people, places, studies, etc.),
and subtitles following a colon (:). (6.29)

Italicize the name of books, reports, webpages, and other stand-alone works (6.22) journals,
magazines, or newspapers (10.1 ex.3), but do not italicize the name of an article. (10.1 ex.5)

Book: Learn more now: 10 simple ways to learning better, smarter & faster. (10.2)
Journal: Journal of Social Psychology (10.1 ex.1)
Magazine: Newsweek (10.1 ex.15)
Newspapers: The New York Times (10.1 ex.16)

New Guidelines for Citing References: Keep the format as simple as possible.
 No retrieval dates needed unless the source material may change over time. (9.16)
 For electronic references, give the DOI, if no DOI is assigned provide the URL. (9.34)
 For works associated with specific location, include the location such as conference

presentations, include the location, (Example: New York, NY) (9.31)

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

The digital object identifier (DOI) is an alphanumeric string identifying content providing a link to
location on the Internet. Give DOI for journal articles, books, or book chapters accessed online. No
period at the end of the string. Do not use the phrase retrieved from. Do not give a retrieval date. The
DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. (9.34)

For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. DOI’s always begin with the number 10. Database
names are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal or book publisher.

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. DOI’s always begin with the number 10. Database
names are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal or book publisher.

Search for a DOI: Go to a free DOI lookup:

• http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/
or

• http://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery/

TEXTUAL WORKS
Table 10.1 Periodicals Template

Source

Author Date Title Periodical
information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Author, C. C.
[username].

Username.

(2020).

(2020, January).

(2020, February
16).

Title of article Title of Periodical,
34(2), 5-14

Title of Periodical,
2(1-2), Article 12.

Title of Periodical

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

(10.1 ex.1) Journal Article Reference with DOI Example
Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue

number), pages. doi: xx.xxxxx

Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-
177. doi: xx.xxxx

It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable
in the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.
***Note: For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned, if not include the URL.

(10.1 ex.2) JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITHOUT DOI EXAMPLE
Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue

number), pages.
Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177.

It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable
in the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.
Note: Provide URL if DOI is not available. (9.35)

(10.1 ex. 3) Journal Article Example
Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical vol(#), p#. Source location if avail.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership. 76(1), 26-33

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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(10.1 ex.17) Blog Post Example
Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Blog. Source location

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

Table 10.2 Books and Reference Works Template

Source

Author Date Title Publisher
Information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Editor, E. E.
(Ed.).

Editor, E. E., &
Editor, F. F.
(Eds.).

(2020).

Title of book.
Title of book (2nd ed., Vol,
4).
Title of book [Audiobook].

Title of book (E. E. Editor,
Editor, Ed.).

Title of book (T. Translator,
Trans,; N. Narrator, Narr.).

Publisher Name.

First Publisher
Name; Second
Publisher Name

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

(10.2 ex.20) Book Reference Example
Last name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of book. Publisher Name. DOI (or URL)

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

(10.2 ex.22) Authored ebook (e.g., Kindle book) or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabase
URL
Last name, Initials (yyyy) Title of ebook (Last name narrator.) [Media]. Publisher name. DOI (or URL)

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.)

[Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http://bit.ly/2G0Bpbl

Table 10.3 Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works Template

Source

Author Date Chapter title Edited book Information DOI or URL

Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020).

Title of chapter In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of
book (pp.3-13). Publisher
Name.

In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor
(Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed.,
Vol. 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher
Name

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

(10.3 ex.39) Chapter in an edited book without a DOI Example

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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Last name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (if 2nd+ ed., pp. #).
Publisher Name.

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A., (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and
responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-
13). CRC Press.

(10.3 ex.40) Chapter in an edited ebook (e.g., Kindle book) or audiobook without a DOI, with
nondatabase URL Example
Last name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (if 2nd+ ed., pp. #).

Publisher Name. URL

Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American
Holocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and
family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press. http://a.co/36xRhBT

(10.4 ex.50-59) Reports and Gray Literature; i.e., government agency or other organization

reports; grants; briefs; press releases.

(10.5 ex.60-63) Conference Sessions and Presentations

(10.6 ex.64-66) Dissertations and Theses

(10.7 ex.67-69) Reviews; i.e., film, book, TV series episode

(10.8 ex.70-74) Unpublished Works and Informally Published Works

(10.9 ex.75-76) Data Sets

(10.10 ex.77-80) Computer Software, Mobile Apps, Apparatuses, and Equipment

(10.11 ex.80-83) Tests, Scales, and Inventories

(10.12 ex.84-90) Audiovisual Works

(10.13 ex.91-96) Audio Works

(10.14 ex.97-102) Visuals Works

(10.15 ex.103-109) Social Media

Table 10.15 Online Media Template

Source

Author Date Title Social
media site

name

URL

Twitter and
Instagram:

(n.d.).

Content of the post up to the
first 20 words.

Site Name.

https://xxxxxxx

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Author, A. A.
[@username].

Name of Group
[@username].

Facebook and
others:
Author, A. A.
Name of Group.
Name of Group
[Username].
Username

(2019,
August, 8).

Content of the post up to the
first 20 words [Description of
audiovisuals].

[Description of audiovisuals].

Retrieved
August 27, 2020,
from
https://xxxxx

(10.16 ex.110-114) Webpages and Websites

Table 10.16 Webpages or Websites Template

Source

Author Date Title Social
media site

name

URL

Author, A. A. &
Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020).

(2019, August).

(2020, September 28).

(n.d.).

Title of work.

Site Name.

https://xxxxxxx

Retrieved
December 22,
2020, from
https://xxxxx

PLAGIARISM

Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas.
But terms like copying and borrowing can disguise the seriousness of the offense:

According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means

 to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own
 to use (another’s production) without crediting the source
 to commit literary theft
 to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source

.
In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying
about it afterward.

Can words and ideas really be stolen?

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According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. In the United States and many other countries, the expression
of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original
inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in
some media (such as a book or a computer file).

All of the following are considered plagiarism:

 turning in someone else’s work as your own
 copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
 failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
 giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
 changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
 copying so many words or ideas from a source making up the majority of your work, whether

you give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules)

Attention! Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent plagiarism. If you
have retained the essential idea of an original source, and have not cited it, then no matter how
drastically you may have altered its context or presentation, you have still plagiarized

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by citing sources. Simply acknowledging certain material has
been borrowed, and providing the audience with the information necessary to find the source, is usually
enough to prevent plagiarism.

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APA Checklist

 Sections of an APA paper: title page, text of paper, and reference page.

 Title Page: Title Format: Center the title on title page in title case, bold, centered, and
positioned in the upper half of the title page. Author, Affiliation, Course, Instructor, Due
Date, Page Number: one blank double-spaced line between the paper title and the author.
Center – First name, middle initial(s), and last name; Center – Affiliation; Center – Course;
Center – Instructor; Center – Due Date; Flush right header – Page-numbering for all pages.

 Begin paper by centering title at the top of page two. The title is uppercase and lowercase
letters and located directly under the 1” margin.

 Double space entire paper/Use 1-inch margin/Text is to be left aligned.

 One space after punctuation at the end of a sentence, comma, colons, and semicolons.

 Use the same font throughout the text of the paper. Options include
o 11-point Calibri
o 11-point Arial
o 10-point Lucinda
o 12-point Times New Roman
o 11-point Georgia

 Same font throughout with the exception of italicizing: (1) key terms or phrases (2) titles of
books, reports, webpages, and other stand-alone work.

 Numbers: zero through nine are expressed in words while numbers 10 and above are written as
numbers (Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time written as words ex: 1
hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago; at the beginning of sentences).

 Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote with
quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuation
outside the final parenthesis.

 Avoid using “etc.” at the end of a list or exclamation point unless it is part of the quotation.

 Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand (‘&’) instead of the word “and”
in text of paper. Always use ampersand (&) in tables, captions and on reference page.

 Capitalize first letter following a colon if clause is a complete sentence.

 Use complete sentences and avoid slang. Use Spell Checker and proofread paper.

 First sentence of every new paragraph must be indented.

 Do not use contractions (it’s = it is; won’t = will not).

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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 Always spell out acronym on first use. Example: APU = American Public University.

 Direct Quotes: must give page number. If no page numbers available, cite paragraph number
using abbreviation para. (para. 4). If no page or paragraph numbers, cite heading and
paragraph number where information found: (Discussion section, para. 2).

 For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For three or
more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation.

 Quotations of 40 words or more treat as block quotation. No quotation marks – indent the whole
block .5 in from left margin. Double-space entire block quotation; (a) cite the source in
parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative
before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses. Do not add a period after
the closing parenthesis in either case.

 The reference page is the last page (unless appendix). Insert a page break at end of the final
paragraph to prevent distortion when edits are made.

 Double-Space the entire paper.

 Insert one space after periods or other punctuation marks at the end of a sentence, commas,
colons, semicolons, periods that separate parts of a reference list entry, periods following initials
in names. Do not insert a space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.),
after periods in identity concealing labels for study participants (F.I.M.), around colons in ratios
(1:4).

 Title of Reference page: Centered – Reference(s) on page directly under the 1” margin. Do not
underling, italicize or make bold.

 Cite references in text of paper and include sources on reference page. PLEASE NOTE: Wikis
(like Wikipedia) cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of entries, and therefore are not
considered scholarly sources. DO NOT USE WIKIS AS PRIMARY SOURCES. Always have
additional sources if using Wiki’s to reaffirm Wiki’s accuracy.

 References are in alphabetical order by author(s) last name on the reference page; list last
name, then first and middle initials (if applicable) only. Author. Date. Title. Source. When author
is unknown or cannot reasonably be Determined, move the title of the work to the author
position followed by a period before the date of the publication, i.e., Anderson, M. (2018).
Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33. or Anonymous.
(2017). or Generalized anxiety disorder. (2019). respectively.

 When citing a book on the reference page, capitalize the first word of the title only (with the
exception of proper names). Also, italicize the name of the book. i.e., Meadows, D. H. (2008).
Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

 Capitalize the FIRST word of all proper names in the title of books and articles and after a colon.

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

Page 22

 Italicize the name of books, journals, and magazines, but do NOT italicize the name of the
article.

 Do not use the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss,. or Pages, p. or pp. on reference page.

 The name of the journal and volume number are italicized. Pay attention to punctuation.

 Citing a source within a source (secondary sources) example: In-text—Bennett (as cited in
Rudman, 1999) defined.

 Reference list: Rudman, R. (1999). Human resources management in New Zealand. (3rd ed.).
Auckland, N.Z.: Addison Wesley Longman

 Citing references on reference page: use the hanging indent. Highlight the citations and press
Ctrl T automatically formats.

 For electronic references, give the DOI or digital object identifier, if assigned. DOI’s always
begin with the number 10. Database names are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, provide
the URL or uniform resource locator of the journal, book, source referenced.

 Use 3rd person point of view (unless opinion paper) avoiding pronouns such as I, we, my, our
(1st person) and you, yours, your, us, we (2ndperson). Deal with facts, thus, providing citations
within paper and reference page. Focus on subject; not feelings about the subject. The use of
3rd person retains a formal tone: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversation.
Please be familiar with the exceptions to this rule in Chapter 4. (4.16)

 Cite all references in paper AND on reference page. If listed on reference page MUST have
cited within paper.

 No retrieval dates, retrieved from, or database name needed on reference page.

 Examples: (Not to format scale)

References
Assembly of the minds. (2008, April 28). Mind and Body, 77(2), 526-528. doi:

10.1057/1024- 1027.29.4.123
Fenchel, J. (2009, October). Diving into the 21st century technology. School Talk, 15(1), 3-5.
Gelb, M. (2003). Discover your genius: How to think like history’s ten most revolutionary

minds. doi: 10.1045/2457-8953-85.2.452.
McKee, A., & Krueger, B. (2004). Learning multimedia principles. Journal of Multimedia

Technology, 21(4), 223-333. doi: 10.1234/5432-8989-34.8.456.
Rasmusen, A. J. (2008). Technology today . British Journal of Multimedia, 96(1), 171-177.
Stielow, F. J. (2003). Building digital archives. New York, NY: Neal-Shuman.
What’s your learning style. (2009). Retrieved from http://people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-

style/

APA 7th ed. Guidelines

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SEVENTH EDITION
QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE

Scholarly Writing and Publishing Principles
1.1 – 1.10 Types of Articles and Papers
1.11-1.17 Ensuring the Accuracy of Scientific Findings
1.18-1.20 Protecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants & Subjects
1.21-1.25 Protecting Intellectual Property Rights

Required Elements
2.1 Student Paper Required Elements
Paper Elements
2.3 Title Page
2.4 Title
2.5 Author
2.6 Author Affiliation
2.11 Text (Body)
2.12 Reference List
Format
2.16 Importance of Format
2.17 Order of Pages
2.18 Page Header
2.19 Font
2.20 Special Characters
2.21 Line Spacing
2.22 Margins
2.23 Paragraph Alignment
2.24 Paragraph Indentation
Organization
2.26 Principles of Organization
2.27 Heading Levels

Journal Article Reporting Standards
3.1 – 3.18 Reporting Standards (JARS)

EFFECTIVE SCHOLARLY WRITING
Continuity and Flow
4.1 Importance of Continuity and Flow
4.2 Transitions
4.3 Noun Strings
Conciseness and Clarity
4.4 Importance of Conciseness and Clarity
4.5 Wordiness and Redundancy
4.6 Sentence and Paragraph Length
4.7 Tone
4.8 Contractions and Colloquialisms
4.9 Jargon
4.10 Logical Comparisons

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4.11 Anthropomorphism
GRAMMAR AND USAGE
Verbs
4.12 Verb Tense
4.13 Active and Passive Voice
4.14 Mood
4.15 Subject and Verb Agreement
Pronouns
4.16 First-Versus Third-Person Pronouns
4.17 Editorial “We”
4.18 Singular “They”
4.19 Pronouns for People and Animals (“Who” vs. “That”)
4.20 Pronouns as Subjects and Objects (“Who” vs. “Whom”)
4.21 Pronouns in Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses (“That” vs. “Which”)
Sentence Construction
4.22 Subordinate Conjunctions
4.23 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
4.24 Parallel Construction
Strategies to Improve Your Writing
4.25 Reading to Learn Through Example
4.26 Writing From an Outline
4.27 Rereading the Draft
4.28 Seeking Help From Colleagues
4.29 Working with Copyeditors and Writing Centers
4.30 Revising a Paper

Bias-Free Language
5.1 – 5.10 Bias-Free Language Guidelines for Reducing Bias

Punctuation
6.1 Spacing After Punctuation Marks
6.2 Period
6.3 Comma
6.4 Semicolon
6.5 Colon
6.6 Dash
6.7 Quotation Marks
6.8 Parentheses
6.9 Square Brackets
6.10 Slash
Spelling
6.11 Preferred Spelling
6.12 Hyphenation
Capitalization
6.13 Words Beginning a Sentence
6.14 Proper Nouns and Trade Names
6.15 Job Titles and Positions

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6.17 Titles of Works and Headings Within Works
6.19 Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters
Italics
6.22 Use of Italics
6.23 Reverse Italics
Abbreviations
6.24 Use of Abbreviations
6.25 Definition of Abbreviations
6.26 Format of Abbreviations
6.27 Unit of Measurement Abbreviations
6.28 Time Abbreviations

Tables and Figures
7.1 – 7.36 Guidelines for Tables and Figures

When to Cite
8.1 Appropriate Level of Citation
8.2 Plagiarism
8.3 Self-Plagiarism
8.4 Correspondence Between Reference List and Text
8.5 Use of the Published Version or Archival Version
Works Requiring Special Approaches to Citation
8.7 Interviews
8.8 Classroom or Intranet Sources
8.9 Personal Communications
In-Text Citations
8.10 Author-Date Citation System
8.11 Parenthetical and Narrative Citations
8.12 Citing Multiple Works
8.13 Citing Specific Parts of a Source
8.14 Unknown or Anonymous Author
8.15 Translated, Reprinted, Republished, and Reissued Dates
8.16 Omitting the Year in Repeated Narrative Citations
8.17 Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations
8.18 Avoid Ambiguity in In-Text Citations
8.19 Works with the Same Author and Same Date
8.20 Authors With the Same Surname
8.21 Abbreviating Group Authors
8.22 General Mentions of Websites, Periodicals, and Common Software and Apps
Paraphrases and Quotations
8.23 Principles of Paraphrasing
8.24 Long Paraphrases
8.25 Principles of Direct Quotation
8.26 Short Quotations (Few Than 40 Words)
8.27 Block Quotations (40 Words or More)
8.28 Direct Quotations of Material Without Page Numbers
8.29 Accuracy of Quotations
8.30 Changes to a Quotation Requiring No Explanation

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8.31 Changes to a Quotation Requiring Explanation
8.32 Quotations That Contain Citations to Other Works
8.33 Quotations That Contain Material Already in Quotation Marks
8.34 Permission to Reprint or Adapt Lengthy Quotations
Reference Categories
9.1 Determining the Reference Category
9.2 Using the Webpages and Websites Reference Category
9.3 Online and Print References
Principles of Reference List Entries
9.4 Four Elements of a Reference
9.5 Punctuation Within Reference List Entries
9.6 Accuracy and Consistency in References

REFERENCE ELEMENTS
Author
9.7 Definition of Author
9.8 Format of the Author Element
9.9 Spelling and Capitalization of Author Names
9.10 Identification of Specialized Roles
9.11 Group Authors
9.12 No Author
Date
9.13 Definition of Date
9.14 Format of the Date Element
9.15 Updated or Reviewed Online Works
9.16 Retrieval Dates
9.17 No Date
Title
9.18 Definition of Title
9.19 Format of the Title Element
9.20 Series and Multivolume Works
9.21 Bracketed Descriptions
9.22 No Title
Source
9.23 Definition of Source
9.24 Format of the Source Element
9.25 Periodical Sources
9.26 Online Periodicals With Missing Information
9.27 Article Numbers
9.28 Edited Book Chapter and Reference Work Entry Sources
9.29 Publisher Sources
9.30 Database and Archive Sources
9.31 Works With Specific Locations
9.32 Social Media Sources
9.33 Website Sources
9.34 When to Include DOIs and URLs
9.35 Format of DOIs and URLs
9.36 DOI and URL Shorteners
9.37 No Source

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Reference Variations
9.38 Works in Another Language
9.39 Translated Works
9.40 Reprinted Works
9.41 Republished or Reissued Works
9.42 Religious and Classical Works
Reference List Format and Order
9.43 Format of the Reference List
9.44 Order of Works in the Reference List
9.45 Order of Surname and Given Name
9.46 Order of Multiple Works by the Same First Author
9.47 Order of Works With the Same Author and Same Date
9.48 Order of Works by First Authors With the Same Surname
9.49 Order of Works With No Author or an Anonymous Author
9.50 Abbreviations in References
9.51 Annotated Bibliographies
9.52 References Included in a Meta-Analysis

REFERENCE EXAMPLES
Textual Works
10.1 Periodicals
10.2 Books and Reference Works
10.3 Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works
10.4 Reports and Gray Literature
10.5 Conference Sessions and Presentations
10.6 Dissertations and Theses
10.7 Reviews
10.8 Unpublished Works and Informally Published Works
Data Sets, Software, and Tests
10.9 Data Sets
10.10 Computer Software, Mobile Apps, Apparatuses, and Equipment
10.11 Tests, Scales, and Inventories
Audio Visual Media
10.12 Audiovisual Works
10.13 Audio Works
10.14 Visual Works
Online Media
10.15 Social Media
10.16 Webpages and Websites

Legal References
11.1-11.10 Guidelines for Legal References

Publication Process
12.1-12.24 Publication Process

APA STYLE SEVENTH EDITION – 2019

This module is designed to show the basic elements of APA style writing and provide examples of appropriate APA guidelines; however, it is not intended as an exhaustive reference guide.

*

WHY USE APA?

APA writing style provides a foundation for effective communication aiding writers to present ideas in a clearer, concise, and organized manner.

APA rules create uniformity and consistency.

APA (Seventh Edition) has broadened its audience consulting not only by psychologists but also students & researchers in many fields such as business, education, social work, nursing and many other behavioral and social sciences.

BASIC APA PAPER CONSIST OF:

The title page

Text of the paper

Reference page

Notice No Running Head – YAY!

THE TITLE PAGE

APA requires seven basic elements to your title page:

1. Title

2. Author name

3. Institution affiliation

4. Course number/name

5. Instructor name

6. Due date

7. Page number (top header right)

SEVEN COMPONENTS OF THE TITLE PAGE

Title

Author name; first name, last name, no titles or degrees used.

Institution affiliation – American Public University

Course number/Course name

Instructor name

Assignment due date (Month, ##, YYYY)

Page number, page number in header flush right

The title is typed bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page, 3-4 lines from top margin.

Capitalize the significant words of the title. Do not capitalize words such as: the, in, of, or, and, unless the word is the first word in the title.

There is no prescribed limit for title length in APA Style, authors are encouraged to keep titles focused and succinct.

*

TEXT OF THE PAPER

The body must conform to but a few guidelines:

  • 1” margins all the way around
  • All text double-spaced
  • Every new paragraph 1 tab indent (0.5 inches)

GENERAL FORMATTING INFORMATION

Begin writing your paper on page two (the cover page is page one). The page numbering top right hand side must reflect page 2 in the Header.

Same typeface throughout – various typeface font choices acceptable (2.19).

Double space the entire paper (2.21).

Margins are set at one inch (top, bottom, left, and right) (2.22).

First sentence of every paragraph must e indented (2.24).

Center the title at the top of page two. The title is written in the title case (6.17).

Quotes 40+ words blocked no quotation marks (8.27)

.

*

WRITING THE PAPER

APA writing should be straightforward with an active voice – i.e., “Jones developed the project..” as opposed to the passive voice – i.e. “The project was developed by Jones…”

Use past tense when describing earlier research

Spell out the first use of an acronym (example: American Public University (APU) – first use. Next time referenced in paper use (APU).

QUOTES OF 40 WORDS OR MORE

If a quotation contains 40 words or more,

treat it as a block quotation

Start a block quotation on a new line

Indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin.

Double-space the entire block quotation. (8.27)

Do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation.

You must give credit for the source.

Place periods or commas within quotation marks when they are part of the quoted material.

At end of quote, place period then page number. Example: …… placebo effect. (p. 276)

CITATIONS–GIVING CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE

It is very important to give proper credit when words or thoughts are not ours originally.

Citing the source means mentioning the author/s within the text so the reader can look up the source at the back of the paper.

APA has very specific ways this must be done. The model must be followed exactly. With a little practice, citing sources gets easier!

*

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is your own rendition of someone else’s information or idea. (8.23)

Parenthetical Citation Example: Many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (Conner, 2004).

Narrative Citation Example: Conner suggested many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (2004).

Direct quote: reproduces words verbatim from an author or source. (8.25)

Parenthetical Citation Example: “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the opportunity to take the time to try them out” (Conner, 2004, p. 161).

Narrative Citation Example: According to Conner (2004) “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have the opportunity or take the time to try them out” (p. 161).

BASIC IN-TEXT CITATION STYLES

Table 8.1 p. 266

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two Authors (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)
Group author with abbreviation
First citation
 
Subsequent citations

(National Institute of Mental Health
[NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH,
2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020

NEW GUIDELINES FOR CITING REFERENCES

  • Keep the format as simple as possible.
  • No retrieval dates needed unless the source material may change over time. (9.16)
  • For electronic references, give the DOI, if no DOI is assigned provide the URL. (9.34)
  • For works associated with specific location, include the location such as conference presentations, include the location, (Example: New York, NY) (9.31)

THE DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI)

The digital object identifier (DOI)

is an alphanumeric string identifying content

Give DOI for

journal articles,

books,

book chapters accessed online.

Do not use the phrase retrieved from

Do not give a retrieval date. (9.34)

For electronic references,

give the DOI

If no DOI assigned, provide the URL. (9.35)

TO SEARCH FOR A DOI

Search for a DOI: Go to a free DOI lookup:

http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/

or

http://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery/

REFERENCE PAGE

The Reference page is the last page (unless an appendix).

Insert a page break at the end of the final paragraph to prevent distortion

The word References should appear at the top center of the page.

Entries are double spaced, left and additional lines of each reference are indented (hanging indent).

Example

References

Stielow, F. J. (2003). Building digital archives.

New York: Neal- Schuman.

*

REFERENCES ARE ALPHABETIZED

References

Alphabetical order by author(s) last name

List last name, then first and middle initials (if applicable) only.

Author. Date. Title. Source.

When author is unknown or cannot reasonably be determined, move the title of the work to the author position followed by a period before the date of the publication, i.e., Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33. or Anonymous. (2017). or Generalized anxiety disorder. (2019). respectively.

Only list the last name of an author or authors followed by initials for the first and middle names. For example: Marcia L. Conner would be listed as Conner, M. L.

Do not list the author as anonymous or unknown unless the work is signed ‘Anonymous’. (9.29)


INSERT THE PUBLICATION DATE IN PARENTHESES FOLLOWING THE AUTHOR.

Following the author’s name is the publication date. The date (in parentheses) is always the second part of a reference. (9.4) List the date as follows:

(year only). For example: (2009).

(year, month). For example: (2007, January). Note: Do not use month abbreviations.

(year, month, day). For example: (1998, June 16).

(range of dates (e.g., range of years, range of exact dates) (9.13)

(n.d.). Use n.d. for works without a publication date (9.17)

Capitalize only the first word of titles, proper nouns (names of people, places, studies, etc.), & subtitles following a colon (:). (6.29)

WHAT TO ITALICIZE

  • Italicize the name of books, reports, webpages, and other stand-alone works (6.22) journals, magazines, or newspapers (10.1 ex.3), but do not italicize the name of an article. (10.1 ex.5)
  • Journal: Journal of Social Psychology (10.1 ex.1)
  • Magazine: Newsweek (10.1 ex.15)
  • Newspapers: The New York Times (10.1 ex.16)
  • Book: Learn more now: 10 simple ways to learning better, smarter & faster. (10.2)

JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITH DOI EXAMPLE (10.1 EX. 1)

Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue number), pages. doi: xx.xxxxx


Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177. doi: xx.xxxx

It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable in the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.

***Note: For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned, if not include the URL.

EXAMPLE JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITHOUT DOI EXAMPLE (10.1 EX. 2)

Last name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issue number), pages.

Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177.

 

It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptable in the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.

Note: Provide URL if DOI is not available. (9.35)

EXAMPLE BLOG POST EXAMPLE

(10.1 EX. 17)

Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Blog. Source location

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about

free will? Sci-Ed.
https://
blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-


we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will
/

EXAMPLE CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK WITHOUT DOI EXAMPLE (10.3. EX. 39)

Last name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (if 2nd+ ed., pp. #). Publisher Name.

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A., (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

ONLINE MEDIA TEMPLATE

Table 10.15 p. 348

      Source
Author Date Title Social media site name URL
Twitter and Instagram:
Author, A. A. [@username].
 
Name of Group [@username].
 
Facebook and others:
Author, A. A.
Name of Group.
Name of Group [Username].
Username
 
 
(n.d.).
 
(2019, August, 8).
Content of the post up to the first 20 words.
 
Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals].
 
[Description of audiovisuals].
Site Name.
 
https://xxxxxxx
 
Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://xxxxx
 

*

WEBPAGES OR WEBSITES TEMPLATE

Table 10.16 p. 351

      Source
Author Date Title Social media site name URL
Author, A. A. &
Author, B. B.
 
Name of Group.
 
 
(2020).
(2019, August).
(2020, September 28).
(n.d.).
Title of work.
 
Site Name.
 
https://xxxxxxx
 
Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xxxxx
 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES

The new Seventh Edition of the APA Manual has various templates along with various examples of different types of references including, but not limited to,

periodicals

books

technical

research reports

meetings & symposia

doctoral dissertations & master’s theses

reviews & peer commentary

audiovisual media

data sets, software, internet message boards, electronic mailing lists & other sources

WRITING & GRAMMAR

BASIC WRITING COMPONENTS

Title: Name your paper. The title can “hook” your readers.

Introduction Paragraph: Tell the readers what you are about to tell them. The thesis statement is often the last sentence of the first paragraph.

Thesis Statement: Essentially, a thesis statement answers the question, “What do I want my readers to know after they have read my essay?”

Body: Discuss topic. The number of paragraphs will depend on the length and complexity of your paper.

Concluding Paragraph: A short summary. Do not introduce

any new information.

WRITING TIPS

Use Formal Voice: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversations, emails, and instant messages.

Complete Sentences: Write in complete sentences. Complete sentences contain both subjects and verbs.

Subject-Verb Agreement: Be sure your subject and verb agree. For example, “we are” rather than “we is,” or “they did” rather than “they done.”

Verb Tense and Active Voice: Limit shifts in verb tense, and use active voice rather than passive voice.

Awkward Phrasing: Use standard English phrasing. For example, “try to do” rather than “try and do,” or “we went” rather than “us went.”

Long Paragraphs Preferred: Be sure your ideas are fully developed in each of your paragraphs. This usually results in paragraphs of three to five sentences.

WRITING TIPS CONT…

Brainstorming: Before beginning to write, take the time to put your ideas on paper. Mind-mapping and list-making are two useful brainstorming techniques.

Organizing: Plan your paper or assignment. This may be as simple as a chronological list of your points or as elaborate as a formal outline.

Multiple Drafts: Professional writers create multiple drafts of their writing. You should too.

Extra Time: Quality writing takes time – lots of time. Build in a cushion of extra time.

Allow Time Between Drafts: While a break of 24- hours or more is ideal, a 30-minute break will yield positive results.

Help From Others: Being mindful of plagiarism and academic honesty, request proofreading help.

WRITING TIPS CONT…

Full Wording Rather Than Contractions: Convert contractions to their complete word-partner. For example:

it’s = it is

won’t = will not

haven’t = have not

Homonyms: Homonyms are words that sound alike but are

spelled differently and have different definitions. For example,

new and knew, your and you’re, and know and no or piece and peace, or versus and verses.

Non-words: Ensure that all your words are standard English words. For example, “alot” is not a word.

Frequently Misspelled Words: Be alert for commonly confused words. For example, possess and posses, a lot and allot, definitely and defiantly, and their and there.

etc.: Avoid using etc. at the end of a list unless it is part of a quotation.

WRITING TIPS CONT…

Use 3rd person point of view (unless opinion paper): Avoid pronouns such as I, we, my, our (1st person) and you, yours, your, us, we (2ndperson). Deal with facts, thus, providing citations within paper and reference page. Focus on subject; not feelings about the subject. The use of 3rd person retains a formal tone: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversation.

Parenthesis: Parentheses are most often used in citations. Before using them in other applications, consult the APA handbook for guidance.

Commas and Introductory Phrases: Usually commas are placed between an introductory phrase and the main sentence; however, commas are rarely used to separate a concluding phrase.

Colon: Colons should only be used when the introductory phrase is a complete sentence.

Semicolon: Semicolons are used to either connect two complete sentences, or to connect a list that contains commas.

Slashes: Use dashes rather than slashes.

WRITING TIPS CONT…

Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. (6.7)

Mid-sentence quote: If quote is in mid-sentence, close quote with quotation marks, cite the source immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. (6.7)

Question Marks and Quotation Marks: Place question marks outside the quotation mark unless the question mark is part of the quotation.

Single Quotation Marks: The only time you use single quotation marks is inside of double quotation marks.

Exclamation Points: Exclamation points should not be used unless the exclamation point is part of a quotation.

Titles of Books and Magazines: Italicize the title of books and magazines.

SPELL-CHECKER,

GRAMMAR-CHECKER,

AND YOU!

Use your word processor’s spell-checker and grammar-checker to catch common mistakes. Remember, these are tools and no software program is perfect.

Spell-checkers identify the words in its dictionary but can not identify correct contextual spelling.

Grammar-checkers may fail to identify incorrect punctuation or usage. It may also highlight correct usage and punctuation.

You must follow along behind them to ensure that the spelling and grammar

are correct.

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