1. What intellectual developments led to the emergence of the Enlightenment? Who were the leading figures of the Enlightenment, and what were their main contributions? In what type of social environment did the philosophes thrive, and what role did women play in that environment?
2. As seen in the Montesquieu excerpt, what is Montesquieu’s doctrine of the separation of powers? What are the underlying moral and political justifications for this system of government? How was this doctrine incorporated into the U.S. Constitution?
3. What was Rousseau’s concept of the social contract? What implications did it have for political thought, especially in regard to the development of democratic ideals?
4. What did Rousseau believe was the role of women and how did he think they should be educated? What arguments did Mary Wollstonecraft make on behalf of the rights of women? What picture did she paint of the women of her day? Why did Wollstonecraft suggest that both men and women were at fault for the “slavish” situation of women?
5. Explain the differences between Baroque music and Classical music. Who were the top Baroque composers and musicians? Who were the leaders of the Classical era?
6. Contrast high culture and popular culture. Would you consider the Enlightenment a high movement or a popular movement? Why? Would you consider the Enlightenment cosmopolitan or rural? Why?
1. What nation was ruled by the Hanover Dynasty? Where were the Hanovers from? What circumstances occurred that required the import of the Hanovers to rule the country?
2. Based on the documents provided, why was the relationship between Frederick II and his father such a difficult one? What does this troubled relationship tell you about the effects of rulership on the great kings of Europe and their families?
3. What impressions of Catherine do you get from the letter by the French ambassador to Russia? To what extent were the ideas expressed in the proposals for a new law code taken from the writings of the philosophes? What does the decree on serfs reveal about Catherine’s view of power? Based on the documents provided, was Catherine an enlightened monarchy? Why or why not?
4. What changes occurred in agriculture, finance, industry, and trade during the eighteenth century?
5. What arguments did the Leeds’ woolen workers use against the new machines? What does the petition reveal about the concept of “progress” at the end of the eighteenth century?
6. What does the Intendant of Bourdeaux’s report to the Controller General reveal about the nature of poverty in France in the eighteenth century? How would the growing ranks of the poor in Europe further destabilize this society?
In what ways were the French Revolution, the American Revolution, and the seventeenth-century English revolutions alike? In what ways were they different?
What were the causes and results of the American Revolution, and what impact did it have on Europe?
Why did the fall of the Bastille come to mark the triumph of French “liberty” over despotism? Do you think the Parisian newspaper account might be biased? Why or why not?
What “natural rights” does the Declaration of the Rights of Man proclaim? To what extent was this document influenced by the writings of the philosophes? What rights does the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen enunciate? Given the nature and scope of the arguments in favor of natural rights and women’s rights in the two documents, what key effects on European society would you attribute to the French Revolution?
How were the condemned taken to the executioner during the Reign of Terror? How did this serve to inflame the crowds? How were people executed? Why?
How did Robespierre justify the violent activities of the French revolutionaries? In your opinion, do his explanations justify his actions? How does his “Speech on Revolutionary Government” glorify the state and advance preservation of the state
In what ways did Napoleon’s policies reject the accomplishments of the French Revolution? In what ways did his policies strengthen the Revolution’s accomplishments?