geology question


1)     Provide definitions and explanation of the following terms with examples:

a) Covalent bonds;

b) Montery Submarine Canyon;  

c) Continental Shelf and Slope;

d) Black and White Smokers;

e) Reefs and Coral Atolls;



2)  Each of the continents on Earth have continental margins – the areas of the continent that transition into ocean and at some point were mainly part of the continent. Due to the rise in the sealevel a lot of our continents are going to be under water soon. Provide description of what these continental margins entail as far as the different zones are considered. Provide description of each of these zones (continental shelf, slope, etc) with their slopes, horizontal and vertical dimensions, contents, etc.

P.S: If you can, you may also provide a simple but well-labelled diagram of this if possible



3)  Tides on Earth are caused by both the Sun and our moon. Describe how the moon and sun influence tides on Earth. Describe the two types of tides (spring & neap), their causes, influences, and examples. Also, describe the kinds of tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal, mixed) and provide where in N.America do they occur.


4)  Igneous rocks are those that are formed either from lava (extrusive) or magma (intrusive). Provide the classification of these rocks, giving in-depth details of their formation and lots of examples of each type.



5)  Provide a list of different structures that are formed when magma chambers give rise to the structures on Earth. Provide a brief description of each of these in your own words giving examples of where you would find these in US and other continents.



Visit the following United States Geological Survey (USGS) Dynamic Earth website: Review the website and address the following:

  • What are Glomar Challenger and JOIDES Resolution? What do they do?
  • According to the maps and diagrams on the website, where are the major concentrations of the world’s earthquakes? Where do most of the earthquakes in Europe occur?
  • What undersea hot springs were discovered in 1977? What is remarkable about these (and other) undersea hot springs?
  • Briefly define the four types of plate boundaries and give an example of each.
  • What is the Ring of Fire?
  • Sketch/diagram and label an oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary.
  • What are hot spots? Where are some prominent hot spots?

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