According to Collective and Jones (2009), women experience victimization every day and two types of victimization are domestic, sexual, and psychological. Many feminist writers (e.g., Brownmiller, 1975; Dworkin, 1991; Russell, 1993) have suggested that pornography encourages the objectification of women and endorses and condones sexual aggression toward women. Both laboratory research and studies of television lend support to this view. Exposure to pornography under laboratory conditions has been found to increase men’s aggression toward women, particularly when a male participant has been affronted, insulted, or provoked by a woman (Linz et al., 1992).
It is not only pornography that depicts violence against women. Television and movies are filled with scenes of women being threatened, raped, beaten, tortured, and murdered. A number of studies of television point to the deleterious effects of viewing media portrayals of violence (e.g., Eron, 1982; Huston et al., 1992). A meta-analysis of 188 studies found a strong positive association between exposure to television violence and antisocial and aggressive behavior (Paik and Comstock, 1994). Those who are exposed to television and cinema violence may also become desensitized to real world violence, less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others, and begin to see the world as a mean and dangerous place (Murray, 1995). However, none of the studies of television violence has focused specifically on violence against women.
In today’s society, women often seem to have harder stereotypes that have been placed on them for as long as I can remember. Some of these stereotypes come from the media’s outlook on women. Also, often timeâ€™s media cover women who have been victimized. Sometimes, the details that are reported about a crime, the offender, and the victim seem to infer that the victim was in some way responsible for their own victimization. Sexual assault is a crime for which the victim may be perceived as guilty as the offender. One study (Costa & Anastasio, 2004) found that the way the media reports on crime affect the readerâ€™s feelings of empathy or blame towards the victim. These researchers state that reporting details about what a victim was wearing or their height and weight trivializes their victimization and implies that the victim had in some way instigated the crime against them. Mentioning that a woman had endured years of abuse by her husband prior to him murdering her prompts blame of the victim because she failed to leave the abusive situation earlier.
Â· Anastasio, P., & Costa, D. (2004). Twice Hurt: How Newspaper Coverage May Reduce Empathy and Engender Blame for Female Victims of Crime. Sex Roles (51) p. 535-542.
Â· Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Bantam Books.
Â· Collective, C. J., & Jones, L. C. (2009). Investigating difference: Human and cultural relations in criminal justice (2nd Ed.). NJ: Prentice Hall.
Â· Dworkin, A. (1991) Pornography: Men Possessing Women. New York: NAL/Dutton.
Â· Eron, L.D. (1982). Parent child interaction, television violence and aggression of children. American Psychologist 27:197-211.
Â· Huston, A.C., E. Donnerstein, H. Fairchild, N.D. Feshbach, P.A. Katz, J.P. Murray, E.A. Rubinstein, B. Wilcox, and D. Zuckerman. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Â· Murray, J.P. (1995). Children and television violence. Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy 4(3):7-14.
Â· Paik, H., and G. Comstock. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research 21(4):516-546.
Â· Russell. (1993). Against Pornography: The Evidence of Harm. Berkeley, Calif.: Russell Publications.
Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two reference…..
Â· Offer and support the opinion from having read your colleaguesâ€™ postings.
Â· Expand on your colleaguesâ€™ postings.