# Liberty University Energy and Conservation Laws Discussion

Newton’s Laws

## Experiment Report

In this activity, you will be writing and submitting an experiment report on the assigned module experiment in Canvas.

The Experiment Report must be submitted utilizing the following format, based on the results of the assigned module experiment.

Physics Experiment Report Format

Name: Do not expect credit if not included.

Title: The experiment name. Do not include the Module number. Again, do not expect credit if not included.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a statement the experiment is designed to test or disprove. Note: experiments are designed to test or disprove, not prove, hypotheses as there are always additional tests that could be performed. Hypotheses should make specific, testable predictions and are often in IF-THEN form, e.g., “if x is changed, then y will occur.” A hypothesis answers the question, “What is the point of the experiment”?

NOT a hypothesis: “to prove Newton’s 2nd law” or “to see what happens if I…”

IS a hypothesis: “if an object moves with constant velocity, then its distance will increase linearly with time.

Overview

The Overview is a paragraph describing the approach or strategy used to test the hypothesis. It should include what was tested and how it was tested.

Procedures

See Experiment Instructions (use this phrase; do not include the actual procedures from the experiment).

Results

State the most important numerical, graphical or qualitative results obtained from performing the experiment. If there is a data table, include it here.

Uncertainty & Error

Discuss sources of uncertainty (due to limited measurement precision, e.g., length measured to the nearest millimeter) and error. Sources of error include modeling errors (differences between the physical system your predictions are based on, and the real system) and experimental errors, both systematic (errors that always shift results in one direction) and random (equally likely to cause overestimates and underestimates). For computer simulations, discuss real-world sources of uncertainty or error that were not simulated.

Conclusion/Summary

Discuss how the experimental results support rejecting or accepting (again, not proving) the hypothesis. Discuss the relevance of uncertainties/errors to these conclusions. Propose experiment improvements and/or future directions for experimentation.

• Application
• Discuss at least one real-world application of the physics concept(s) tested in the experiment.

Experiment Report Example (DOCX)

The single most important requirement for an experiment report is clarity. It should be written in such a way that someone who has been unable to conduct the experiment would be able to clearly understand what was done, the results, and why it mattered.

All experiment reports should be:

concise, clear, and contain the necessary details for a well-developed explanation.

well organized so the reader is able to quickly find the information needed or of interest.

relevant and rational so the reader is able to validate the summary or conclusion.

Part 2 Questions Real-World Physics DiscussionLET’S TALK ABOUT IT!

focus on “the real world” by applying the physics concepts we are learning to both everyday life and to aviation.After completing the readings and concept-related activities in this module, you will be prepared to engage in this discussion.
Post Instructions and Requirements:

Choose a discussion topic that uses physics topics covered in this module. Consider one of the following as good topic “starters” for discussion: (i) What were your “Aha!” moments as you worked through the material? (ii) How does this module’s content relate to your professional career? Personal life? (iii) How does this module’s content relate to current events? (iv) Did you more deeply explore a topic only covered lightly in the course materials? What did you discover? (v) What concepts (learning objectives) did you struggle with? What resources helped you overcome this hurdle? Do not post homework problems.

Create an engaging 3-paragraph initial post that ties one or more of the module’s concepts to the real world. The paragraphs should address the following points:

Paragraph 1: Describe the physics concepts/topics you have chosen to discuss from this week’s module, including, as appropriate, a reference to this week’s readings on the topics, terminology with definitions, units, conventions, etc.

Paragraph 2: Summarize one or more impacts of the physics concepts to everyday life or aviation.

Paragraph 3: Either: (i) provide a real example, e.g., from an article or documented report of the aviation impact of this physics concept, or, (ii) give “your take” on the relevance and importance of this topic from your own perspective, by providing personal points of view or related experiences.

Length. Because your initial post will be scored on the degree to which you meet these standards, there is no set minimum word requirement. However, there is a set maximum word requirement – confine your initial post to 500 words. Remember we are all reading each other’s posts, and a succinctly written post is more likely to be read and responded to, thus furthering our discussion on that topic.

Graphics. Include a graphic, video, or image within your post (do not attach) that helps visualize some aspect of your initial post discussion.

PART 3 Quizzes

QuizThis quiz is intended to test you on the information you have acquired in this module.Before starting the quiz, make sure you have completed all module activities with additional emphasis on the following:

The textbook is essential for this course. Read Chapter 2 and be sure you understand the solved problems in the chapter.

Actively (with paper and pencil) work through this module’s 1st video (entitled Solving Physics Problems) that introduces the 5-step problem-solving technique used throughout this course. This module’s additional videos are also helpful.

Successfully complete the problems in the textbook End-of-Chapter Problems section. This is an essential step in preparing for this Chapter Quiz. The End-of-Chapter Questions section is also helpful.

QUIZ INSTRUCTIONS

Use 9.8 m/s2 for g (the acceleration due to gravity).

Use the conversion factors found in the back of the textbook (not those found on the internet).

Answers should be solved in SI units unless other instructions are given in the question.

Express answers to 3 significant figuresunless other instructions are given in the question.

To enter an answer in scientific notation in Canvas, use lower-case “e”. For example, 6.02 x 1023 would be entered as 6.02e+23.

“+” is optional for positive exponents.

Question 1. A spring stretches 0.25 m from rest when a mass of 2 kg is placed on the spring.  What is the spring constant k for the spring (in units of N/m)?

An airplane can withstand a maximum acceleration of 5 g’s. If the airplane’s mass is 1,897 kg, what magnitude of force (in Newtons) will cause this acceleration?

A centripetal force of 1000 N acts on a 6,619 kg satellite moving with a speed of8000 m/s in a circular orbit around a planet. What is the radius of its orbit?

• An aircraft carrier catapult accelerates a 19,349 kg jet from rest to 90 m/s in 3 sec.  What force does the catapult exert on the jet?
• A deep space probe is launched and at 10,000 miles from Earth’s center, experiences a gravitational force of 675 lbs. What is the gravitational force on the the probe at a distance of 20,000 miles?
• An airliner has a weight of 325,312 lbs.  What is its weight in Newtons?
• An object with a mass of [m] kg is in free fall in a vacuum tube (negligible air resistance) with an acceleration of 9.81 m/s².  What will be the object’s acceleration if its mass is doubled?

In an experiment performed on the International Space Station, a force of 53 Newtons causes an object to have an acceleration of 2 m/s².  What is the object’s mass?

• A jet accelerates from rest at 2 m/s².  How far does the jet travel during 5 seconds?

PART 4

Energy and Conservation Laws
Experiment ReportIn this activity, you will be writing and submitting an experiment report on the assigned module experiment in Canvas.The Experiment Report must be submitted utilizing the following format, based on the results of the assigned module experiment.Physics Experiment Report FormatName: Do not expect credit if not included.Title: The experiment name. Do not include the Module number. Again, do not expect credit if not included.HypothesisA hypothesis is a statement the experiment is designed to test or disprove. Note: experiments are designed to test or disprove, not prove, hypotheses as there are always additional tests that could be performed. Hypotheses should make specific, testable predictions and are often in IF-THEN form, e.g., “if x is changed, then y will occur.” A hypothesis answers the question, “What is the point of the experiment”?

NOT a hypothesis: “to prove Newton’s 2nd law” or “to see what happens if I…”

IS a hypothesis: “if an object moves with constant velocity, then its distance will increase linearly with time.

OverviewThe Overview is a paragraph describing the approach or strategy used to test the hypothesis. It should include what was tested and how it was tested.ProceduresSee Experiment Instructions (use this phrase; do not include the actual procedures from the experiment).ResultsState the most important numerical, graphical or qualitative results obtained from performing the experiment. If there is a data table, include it here.Uncertainty & ErrorDiscuss sources of uncertainty (due to limited measurement precision, e.g., length measured to the nearest millimeter) and error. Sources of error include modeling errors (differences between the physical system your predictions are based on, and the real system) and experimental errors, both systematic (errors that always shift results in one direction) and random (equally likely to cause overestimates and underestimates). For computer simulations, discuss real-world sources of uncertainty or error that were not simulated. Conclusion/SummaryDiscuss how the experimental results support rejecting or accepting (again, not proving) the hypothesis. Discuss the relevance of uncertainties/errors to these conclusions. Propose experiment improvements and/or future directions for experimentation.ApplicationDiscuss at least one real-world application of the physics concept(s) tested in the experiment.

PART 5Energy and Conservation Laws
Real-World Physics DiscussionLET’S TALK ABOUT IT!
In this course, we will engage in graded discussions that focus on “the real world” by applying the physics concepts we are learning to both everyday life and to aviation.After completing the readings and concept-related activities in this module, you will be prepared to engage in this discussion.Initial Post Instructions and Requirements:

Choose a discussion topic that uses physics topics covered in this module. Consider one of the following as good topic “starters” for discussion: (i) What were your “Aha!” moments as you worked through the material? (ii) How does this module’s content relate to your professional career? Personal life? (iii) How does this module’s content relate to current events? (iv) Did you more deeply explore a topic only covered lightly in the course materials? What did you discover? (v) What concepts (learning objectives) did you struggle with? What resources helped you overcome this hurdle? Do not post homework problems.

Create an engaging 3-paragraph initial post that ties one or more of the module’s concepts to the real world. The paragraphs should address the following points:

Paragraph 1: Describe the physics concepts/topics you have chosen to discuss from this week’s module, including, as appropriate, a reference to this week’s readings on the topics, terminology with definitions, units, conventions, etc.

Paragraph 2: Summarize one or more impacts of the physics concepts to everyday life or aviation.

Paragraph 3: Either: (i) provide a real example, e.g., from an article or documented report of the aviation impact of this physics concept, or, (ii) give “your take” on the relevance and importance of this topic from your own perspective, by providing personal points of view or related experiences.