nutr amp 101 worksheet6

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Vitamins and Minerals Worksheet

  1. Define the term bioavailability:
  2. What are the two characteristics of vitamins?
  3. What are the fat soluble vitamins? Water soluble?
  4. Describe how fat soluble vitamins are absorbed and then transported around the body. Include the terms enterocytes, chylomicrons, lymph, liver.
  5. Describe the absorption and transport of water soluble vitamins:
  6. What is a co-enzyme? How does it work?
  7. Fill in the following table:

Food Sources

Main function/s

Symptoms of deficiency

Other important notes

Vitamin A

B vitamins

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

  1. What is collagen? What is it important function in the body?
  2. What vitamins act as antioxidants?
  3. Describe what an antioxidant does. Include the terms oxidation and reduction.
  4. What’s the difference between a major and trace mineral?
  5. What major mineral do we get from processed foods?
  6. What major mineral do we mostly get from unprocessed foods?
  7. What mineral, if eaten in excess leads to high blood pressure? Explain exactly why this happens:
  8. What percent of the U.S. population is hypertensive?
  9. What is the DASH diet and how does it reduce hypertension?
  10. What are the main functions of bone?
  11. What minerals are involved in building healthy bones and teeth?
  12. What’s the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? What happens to each type of bone when osteoporosis occurs?
  13. Describe the function of each of these types of cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes.
  14. What does it mean to say that bone remodels? What kind of cells are active in bone remodeling?
  15. What is the role of estrogen in bone remodeling?
  16. What is the role of mechanical stress in bone remodeling?
  17. What is osteoporosis?
  18. What are the risk factors for osteoporosis?
  19. Describe the hemoglobin molecule.
  20. What is the function of iron?
  21. What is anemia and what are the symptoms?
  22. Fill in the following table:

Food Sources


Signs of deficiency







  1. What is the RDA for fruits and veggies? How many servings per day do you get, on average? How can you incorporate more into breakfast? Lunch? Dinner?
  2. Why do refined grains have less vitamins and minerals than whole grains?

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