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Please answer all 5 questions with 100 words or more. Please include cite in each answer and references.
1.Professionals in the helping community, particularly those who are licensed, typically are charged to report “suspicion” of child maltreatment to the appropriately designated authority in their respective jurisdictions. Resultantly, such professionals often are known as “mandated reporters.” Indeed, “the legal definitions of child abuse and child neglect vary from state to state. Typically, definitions of abuse refer to the creation of conditions that may give rise to abuse of a child (a person under the state-defined age of majority) by an adult responsible for the care of that person. The abuse may be in the form of (1) the infliction or allowing of infliction of physical injury or emotional impairment that is nonaccidental, (2) the creation or allowing the creation of substantial risk of physical injury or emotional impairment that is nonaccidental” (Cohen, et al., 2013, p. 521).
Moreover, the construct of child maltreatment encompasses physical, emotional, sexual abuse, neglect, and/or exploitation. However, what thoughts might you have on the mandated to report suspicion of maltreatment, including the importance of the word, “suspicion”?
2. According to Cohen, et al. (2013), “Psychological assessors can assist the court in making such decisions through the use of a custody evaluation –a psychological assessment of parents or guardians and their parental capacity and/or of children and their parental needs and preferences–usually undertaken for the purpose of assisting a court in making a decision about awarding custody” (p. 518). As such, this assessor becomes an expert witness in a divorce proceeding in a court of law. Pursuant to this expert witness status, “the psychologist uses multiple methods of data gathering” (American Psychological Association, 1994, p. 679).
What thoughts might you have on the psychological community completing and providing an assessment to be used in awarding custody of a child? What might be the role of the child in this process? How might the concept of informed consent be assured to all concerned and/or affected by the process?
3. Neuropsychological assessment may be defined as the evaluation of brain and nervous system functioning as it relates to behavior” (Cohen, et al., 2013, p. 530). Moreover, in pursuit of such an assessment, “the neuropsychologist typically administers a battery of tests for further clinical study. Trained neuropsychologists may administer a prepackaged fixed battery of tests, or they may modify a fixed battery for the case at hand. They may choose to administer a flexible battery, consisting of an assortment of instruments hand-picked for some purpose relevant to the unique aspects of the patient and the presenting problem” (Cohen, et al., 2013, p. 556).
Interestingly, in a court case (Chapple vs. Ganger, 1994), more weight was given to the results of a fixed battery than to two flexible batteries, and as result, “the Daubert standard was applied for the very first time to the use of fixed (standardized) versus flexible (nonstandardized) neuropsychological test batteries in the federal court” (Reed, 1996, p. 315).
What additional thoughts might you have on fixed battery of tests and flexible battery of tests? What thoughts do you have on the Daubert standard?
4. According to Carlson and Harvey (2004), “In conducting assessments and choosing to use computer technology in ways that enhance their services, school psychologists remain central to the processes of formulating accurate conceptualizations of children in their care. Appropriately, school psychologists remain accountable for products issued by software programs” (p. 656).
Reasonably to the above assertions, Young (2008) analyzed the effects of technology use in the classroom, and specifically observed American teachers and students from the Kaiserslautern School District, which is part of the U.S. Department of Defense Educational Activity in Germany. Technology surveys were administered to teachers and students to determine the overall use of technology by teachers and students. Results indicated that technology was motivating, but that it had no positivity in attendance or grades for the students. The outcome of this study suggested “that for technology to be effective and make changes in student’s grades, motivation, attitude, and attendance, schools must be prepared for technology use in the classroom” (Young, 2008).
What are your thoughts on the efforts of Young (2008) and Carlson and Harvey (2004), and do you share the vision of utilizing technology in the classroom, because of the ever-changing utilization of technology in today’s society?
5. Perhaps, the security of test data should be understood broadly across the many components of the psychological helping community. For instance, and according to Blackwell, et al. (2001), “Disclosure of test data can raise a number of ethical concerns for rehabilitation counselors who use tests. … They also should be aware of relevant federal and state statutes, regulations, and rules relevant to the release of test data. …To maintain ethical practice in the use of tests and in the disclosure of test data, rehabilitation counselors need to combine sound professional judgment with consistent attention to their professional and legal responsibilities in this evolving area of practice” (p. 165).
What thoughts do you have on the importance of test security, including the prevention of misuse of test data, assuring confidentiality, protecting copyright, et cetera?