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Who was Martin Luther King Jr.?
Born in January 15, 1929
Son of Baptist minister
Received his doctoral degree in theology from Boston University
Worked primarily in the South
Overthrowing laws that promoted segregation and to increase the number of black voters registered in southern communities
Became famous for supporting a program ot integrate busses in Montgomery, Alabama, then was asked by the SCLC (southern Christian leadership conference) to assist in the fight for civil rights in Birmingham, Alabama, where SCLC meeting was held
King was arrested as the result of a program of sit-ins at luncheon count tars and wrote the letter â€œletter from Birmingham jailâ€
Addresses to a group of clergymen who had criticized his position
Continue of who was dr kingâ€¦.
He used his motivational power to explain that freedom is never given voluntarily but otherwise earned.
King had been arrested before and would be again
Resembled Henny David Thoreau with the attire toward laws they did not conform to moral justice
Willing to suffer for his views
His efforts helped change attitudes in the south
His views concerning nonviolence spread throughout the world a dby 1960s he had become known as the man who stood for human rights and human dignity everywhere,
The sit-ins and voter registration prams often led to countless bombings, threats, and murders by members of the white community as well as his life being threatened, hi shome being bombed and his followers being harassed
Summary of letter from Birmingham
injustice, racism, and segregation has been embedded in our history and has slowly transcended into modern society. Dr. Martin Luther King in his letter, â€œLetter from Birmingham Jailâ€ claims that the laws in the South are unjust and need to be addressed. He supports his claims by first stating why Birmingham is unjust, after he expands on the issues of gaining freedoms. Lastly, he explains why nonviolent solutions the best solutions for colored people are to be heard.
â€œWe have waited for more than 340 years for our constitution and God-Given rightsâ€
He uses an emotional tone by saying that they have waited 340 years to be given something that they should have rightfully had already. This influences the reader emotionally because it is going to make them realize that Dr. King is speaking the truth, which will likely influence a change in their current laws. He also goes deep into context by using a father’s daughter to pose the question of why she is unable to go to the amusement park, and the father forced to explain that itâ€™s because of her color. He could have easily suggested that the majority of people wait and see what happens, but he demanded change immediately. By demanding change, he gains a sense of command and leadership which people admire and start to follow, which encourages them to speak out
Continue summary of the text
This letter was addressed to people who believed that peace and order might be threatened by granting african americans the true independence
This letter objects to un justice that was rampant in Frederick Douglass’s time but inexcusable in the time of John F. Kennedy
He mentions the Four basic steps to nonviolent campaign
1st -collection of facts to determine whether injustices exsit
2nd – negotiation
King remains grounded in logic, convinced that his argument will in turn convince his audience and that the letter from Birmingham jail is a model of close and reasonable analysis of very complex issue. It succeeded mainly because it remained concrete, treating one issue after another carefully and refusing to be caught up in passion.
August 28 is an anniversary of the groundbreaking March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom witnessed the dedication of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial. It is fitting that on this date, reminiscent of the defining moment in Dr. King’s leadership in the Civil Rights movement; in the form of solid granite, his legacy is further cemented in the tapestry of the American experience. His leadership in the drive for realization of the freedoms and liberties laid down in the foundation of the United States of America for all of its citizens, without regard to race, color, or creed is what introduced this young southern clergyman to the nation. The delivery of his message of love and tolerance through the means of his powerful gift of speech and eloquent writings inspire to this day, those who yearn for a gentler, kinder world . His inspiration broke the boundaries of intolerance and even national borders, as he became a symbol, recognized worldwide of the quest for civil rights of the citizens of the world.
Coretta Scott King (the wife of Martin Luther King Jr)
Coretta Scott King was an American author, activist, civil rights leader, and the wife of Martin Luther King Jr. An active advocate for African American equality, she was a leader for the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. King was also a singer who often incorporated music into her civil rights work. King met her husband while attending graduate school in Boston. They both became increasingly active in the American Civil Rights Movement.
King played a prominent role in the years after her husband’s assassination in 1968 when she took on the leadership of the struggle for racial equality herself and became active in the Women’s Movement. King founded the King Center and sought to make his birthday a national holiday. She finally succeeded when Ronald Reagan signed legislation which established Martin Luther King, Jr. Day on November 2, 1983. She later broadened her scope to include both advocacies for LGBT rights and opposition to apartheid. King became friends with many politicians before and after Martin Luther King’s death, including John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Robert F. Kennedy. Her telephone conversation with John F. Kennedy during the 1960 presidential election has been credited by historians for mobilizing African American voters
1958-1968 (what was happening )
In 1958, King and other civil rights leaders meet with President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Washington. Kingâ€™s first book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story is published. During a book signing at Blumsteinâ€™s Department Store in Harlem, New York, King is stabbed by Izola Ware Curry. He is rushed to Harlem Hospital where a team of doctors successfully remove a seven-inch letter opener from his chest.
In 1959, King embarks on a month-long visit to India where he meets with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and many of Gandhiâ€™s followers.
In 1960, King moves from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more time to SCLC and the freedom struggle. He becomes assistant pastor to his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church. King is found not guilty of tax fraud by a white jury in Montgomery. King meets privately in New York with Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.
King is arrested during a sit-in demonstration at Richâ€™s department store in Atlanta. He is sentenced to four months hard labor for violating a suspended sentence he received for a 1956 traffic violation. He is released on $2000 bond on 27 October.
In 1961, Dexter Scott, Kingâ€™s third child, is born. After the initial group of Freedom Riders seeking to integrate bus terminals are assaulted in Alabama, King addresses a mass rally at a mob-besieged Montgomery church. King meets with President John F. Kennedy and urges him to issue a second Emancipation Proclamation to eliminate racial segregation. King, Ralph Abernathy, Albany Movement president William G. Anderson, and other protesters are arrested by Laurie Pritchett during a campaign in Albany, Georgia.
(1958-1968) what was happening
in 1962, King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia prayer vigil and jailed. After spending two weeks in jail, King is released. During the closing session of the SCLC conference in Birmingham, Alabama, a member of the American Nazi Party assaults King, striking him twice in the face.
In 1963, Bernice Albertine, Kingâ€™s fourth child, is born. Responding to eight Jewish and Christian clergymenâ€™s advice that African Americans wait patiently for justice, King pens his “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” King and Abernathy were arrested on 12 April and released on 19 April. Conflict in Birmingham reaches its peak when high-pressure fire hoses force demonstrators from the business district. In addition to hoses, Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor employs dogs, clubs, and cattle prods to disperse four thousand demonstrators in downtown Birmingham. Strength to Love, King’s book of sermons, is published. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom attracts more than two hundred thousand demonstrators to the Lincoln Memorial. Organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin, the march is supported by all major civil rights organizations as well as by many labor and religious groups. King delivers his “I Have a Dream” speech. After the march, King and other civil rights leaders meet with President John F. Kennedy and Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson in the White House. King delivers the eulogy at the funerals of Addie Mae Collins, Carol Denise McNair, and Cynthia Dianne Wesley, three of the four children that were killed during the 15 September bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. Carole Robertson, the fourth victim, was buried in a separate ceremony. U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy authorizes the FBI to wiretap Kingâ€™s home phone.
(1958-1968) What was happening
n 1964, King is named “Man of the Year” by Time Magazine. President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with King, Roy Wilkins, Whitney Young, and James Farmer and seeks support for his War on Poverty initiative. Robert Hayling, leader of the movement in St. Augustine, Florida, invites King and SCLC to join the struggle. King meets Malcolm X in Washington, D.C. for the first and only time. King’s book Why We Canâ€™t Wait is published. King is arrested and jailed for demanding service at a white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida. King and SCLC staff launch a People-to-People tour of Mississippi to assist the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in the Mississippi Freedom Summer campaign. After King criticizes the FBIâ€™s failure to protect civil rights workers, the agencyâ€™s director J. Edgar Hoover denounces King as “the most notorious liar in the country.” A week later he states that SCLC is “spearheaded by Communists and moral degenerates.” King meets with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover at the Justice Department. King receives the Nobel Peace Prize at a ceremony in Oslo, Norway. He declares that “every penny” of the $54,000 award will be used in the ongoing civil rights struggle.
In 1965,The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset Avenue in Atlanta. In an event that will become known as “Bloody Sunday,” voting rights marchers are beaten at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama as they attempt to march to Montgomery. King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil rights marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S. District judge upholds the right of demonstrators to conduct an orderly march. King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a mass rally at the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in Birmingham.
In 1966, King and his wife move into an apartment at 1550 South Hamlin Avenue in Chicago to draw attention to the city’s poor housing conditions. In Chicago, King meets Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad. King, Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely Carmichael of SNCC resume James Meredithâ€™s “March Against Fear” from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, after Meredith was shot and wounded near Memphis.
(1958-1968) what was happening
in 1967, King delivers “Beyond Vietnam” to a gathering of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam at Riverside Church in New York City. He demands that the U.S. take new initiatives to end the war. Kingâ€™s book Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? is published. King publicly reveals his plans to organize a mass civil disobedience campaign, the Poor People’s Campaign, in Washington, D.C., to force the government to end poverty.
In 1968, King leads a march of six thousand protesters in support of striking sanitation workers in Memphis. The march descends into violence and looting, and King is rushed from the scene. King returns to Memphis, determined to lead a peaceful march. During an evening rally at Mason Temple in Memphis, King delivers his final speech, “Iâ€™ve Been to the Mountaintop.” King is shot and killed while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. King is buried in Atlanta.
Closing the presentation
Dr.King was a heavy advocate for justice all over the world. He was highly respected for his writings, views, and bravery. As a result of this, many clergymen were not too fond of him and decided to arrest him for protesting segregation. While he was in jail, he wrote a very inspirational letter. This letter appealed to many and received a lot of attention because of the fact that it went against the laws and people in higher power. The letter made many assumptions, such as freedom is not actually free and constitutional rights are not given to everyone. This made many people of color realize that these things are true and, therefore, protest .In the 1900â€™s, racial segregation was very isolating and degrading, from verbal comments to signs on community stores and public drinking fountains that do not allow people of color to use such things. Dr. King hoped to change the world one day in his writings and dreamed of a better future society that labels everyone as simply human.
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