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Assignment #5 (Week 8): Final Project

Instructions

Week 8 Final Project – Strategic Assessment Project (PowerPoint presentation plus References page)

Goal: Develop and present via PowerPoint a strategic plan for your organization, integrating various concepts, components and processes presented throughout this course. Submit the presentation (ppt or pptx) along with a References page (.doc) that verifies sources used.

Introduction: Managers who want to improve the effectiveness of the future outcomes of their organization employ strategic planning. In a 20-25-slide PowerPoint presentation, present a strategic plan for your organization, accompanied by a References-only page as a Word.doc that contains the minimum 10 sources used in the development of the presentation. Your presentation may be a re-developed plan based on the plan your organization already uses. If you are in the military, you may elect to choose a company (Walmart) where you previously worked or select a company. In any case, you will need to begin by providing a brief history of the company, and then delve into the process detailed more fully below. Accompany your writing with a minimum five 
scholarly journal articles that support the assertions made in your strategic plan. You will also need to use at least five 
other sources—books, magazines, websites, and even interviews—to augment your data support for the presentation.

Your strategic plan should address [Suggested number of PPT slides in brackets]:

The Name of the Company/Firm [1 PPT slide]

Brief History of the Company (or Organization), its Mission and Vision [2-3 PPT slides]

Organizational Analysis [5-6 PPT slides] : This section will present your identification of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses, which emanate from your value chain and functional analyses. There is a maximum of five strengths and five weaknesses and your presentation of them should be prioritized. Exhibits are effective tools to provide strong support for each strength and weakness. Please be as specific as possible and quantify your analysis where appropriate. This section will provide the first part of the foundation for your identification of strategic issues and related recommendations through your analysis of the organization’s core competencies, competitive advantages and organizational weaknesses.

Environmental Analysis [5-6 PPT slides]: This section will present your identification of the major external threats and opportunities currently facing the organization. These will be generated from your analysis of the industry and general environmental factors in light of the organization’s strengths and weaknesses. A maximum of five threats and five opportunities should be identified and should be presented in a prioritized order. Use power point exhibits to support your analysis, be specific and quantify your analysis where possible. This section will provide the second part of the foundation for your identification of a strategic issue and the formulation of related recommendations through your analysis of driving forces, key success factors and industry attractiveness.

Strategic Issues And Recommendations [6-7 PPT slides]: Identify (with support) the most important strategic issue facing your organization. It is extremely important that you clearly integrate the strategic issue with your analysis to the organization’s SWOT. There may be interrelationships between particular weaknesses and threats or missed opportunities, which should be recognized. It may be possible that 2 different weaknesses, 1 threat and 1 opportunity could be combined, due to their relatedness, to form one strategic issue. Similarly, your recommendations should attempt to capitalize and build upon strengths, competitive advantages and opportunities that you identified. The point is to clearly ground your issue and recommendations with the internal and external analyses so that the presentation is clear.

Conclusion/Summary [1-2 PPT slides]

Eighth International Conference
on Knowledge, Culture and
Change in Organizations

5-8 August 2008
Cambridge University ◦ UK

Knowledge,
Culture, Service,
and “The Next”
An excursion forward into
neo-organizational
structure
J. Louis Spencer, Ph.D.

The Case for
Neo-Organizational
Structures—
a review of present realities
and literature

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

1. The industrial age is giving
way to the knowledge era
The era of knowledge-production and knowledge management is
emerging with unparalleled significance in organizations. Facilitating
learning, creative, and adaptive capacity becomes a central leader task
that reflects the “dynamic relationship between the bureaucratic,
administrative functions of the organization and the emergent, informal
dynamics of complex adaptive systems (CAS).”
(Uhl-Bien, Marion, & McKelvey, 2007, p. 298)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

2. Traditional hierarchical
models do not express all
there is to structure
A more effective use of understanding hierarchy is to view it as
supporting organizational members instead of merely commanding
them. Instead of reflecting the hierarchical needs of the leader to
maintain power and control, long-term viability of organizations is
related to a collectively led dynamic system “where bottom-up
structuration emerges.” (Osborn & Hunt, 2007, p. 319)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

3. Globally diverse
organizations and cultures
require a global mindset in
organizational structures
Antecedents of cultural diversity are a significant consideration when
talking about global leadership and change (Hofstede, 2001; House et al, 2004).
Leaders with a global mindset will develop forward-thinking organizational
structures reflective of the ability “to influence individuals, groups,
organizations, and systems that are unlike the leader’s.”
(Javidan, 2007, 2008)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

4. Complex adaptive
processes are emergent and
interactive
Organizational processes involve complex adaptive relational responses that
can be depicted as interactions between interdependent people.
(Stacey et al, 2000, Stacey, 2001, 2003)

Leadership in organizations considers valuable the “complex adaptive
process that emerges in the interactive ‘spaces between’ people and
ideas.” (Lichtenstein et al, 2006, p. 2)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

5. Flatter, more team-based
structures are becoming
normative
Flatter, more team-based structures are replacing traditional hierarchies in
organizations. (Shalley & Gilson, 2004)

“As traditional management hierarchies give way to the flatter organisational
structures of the modern lean and agile companies, a new generation of
leaders and new models of effective leadership have emerged to manage
these organisations.” (Found & Harvey, 2007, p. 40)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

6. The current trend toward
decentralization and neural
networking of organizations is
gaining momentum
Technological advancements allow unparalleled abilities to create organizations
that appear to have structure and even headship, but in reality are a neural
network of individuals capable of functioning in a leadership role at any given
time. (According to Brafman and Beckstrom (2006) ,“the absence of structure, leadership, and formal organization, once
considered a weakness, has become a major asset” (p.7).

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

7. The role of the follower in
organizations has increasing
emphasis
The role of followers in organizations is emerging more than ever as a
singularly-valued topic in organizational leadership and coincides with the
advancement and use of innovative—and flatter—organizational
hierarchies. (Baker, 2007; Bennis, 2008; Lichtenstein et al, 2006)

The leader and the led are intimate allies whose structures are “built of
energy and ideas, led by people who find their joy in the task at hand, while
embracing each other.” (Bennis, 1999, p. 79)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

The Case for Neo-Organizational
Structures—summary

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

Neo-organizational structures support:
1.  Technological capabilities for knowledge sharing
2.  More accurate representation for the way leaders and

followers actually relate within an organization
3.  The value of diverse cultures within the global

community
4.  A leadership paradigm that promotes

learning, creativity, and adaptation
5.  An enhanced interplay between

individuals, groups, and teams
6.  Greater access to power by all members of

an organization
7.  The significance of followers

Each of the summary possibilities is worthy of further
discussion, since each point is the topic of continuing research,
assessment and practice in organizations today. However, two
complimentary considerations provide particular interest as
well as impetus for this theoretical excursion into neo-
organizational structure:

First, organizations reflect what could be termed “Negative
Hierarchy” as we consider what is “the next.”

Second, a negative hierarchical structure facilitates follower
empowerment and greater productivity

Several theoretical streams reflect a kind of
thinking about leadership that facilitates
organizational effectiveness by seeing this
“negative hierarchy” as an advantage. Among
those theories that reflect innovative intentionality
toward followers is servant leadership (SL). SL
stands out as an example of how leaders lead
given the realities of a present future where
organizational change and adaptation are the
norm and followers are vital organizational agents.
(Greenleaf, 1977, 2004; Lichtenstein et al, 2006; Osborn & Hunt, 2007)

Agapao P1
Humility P2
Altruism P3
Vision S7, B6, RS1, P4
Trust S8, B7, RS4, P5
Hope P6
Service (Servanthood) S10, B10, RS5, PW2, P8, LW9
Empowerment RS9, PW6, P7, LW4
Voluntary Subordination/Relating SJ6, LW8
Authentic Self RS2, SJ5
Covenantal Relationship SJ1
Responsible Morality SJ4
Transcendental Spirituality SJ3
Transforming Influence S5, B3, RS6, SJ2
Leading B8, RS7, PW1
Visioning PW3
Team-building PW5
Empowering others PW6
Shared decision-making PW7
Integrity RS3, PW8
Emotional Healing S3, B2, LW1
Creating Value for the Community LW2
Conceptual Skills S6, B4, LW3
Helping Employees/subordinates Grow/ Succeed S9, B5, RS8, PW4, LW5
Putting Employees/subordinates First LW6
Behaving Ethically LW7
Altruistic Calling BW11
Wisdom
Persuasive Mapping S5, B3
Organizational Stewardship S8

B: Bennett
BW: Barbuto & Wheeler
LW: Liden et al
P: Patterson
PW: Page & Wong
RS: Russell & Stone
S: Spears
SJ: Sendjaya

As promised, this is
only an excursion.
And now it is time to
come toward
home . . .

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

Requirements for the Use of
Neo-Organizational Structures

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

1.  Structures should be made to serve the organization and
its members, not the other way around (yes, neo-
organizational structures can be based on traditional
hierarchical models)

2.  More effective communication within the organization
facilitates greater learning, innovation, and adaptability.

3.  You must have the right people to make it work
•  Greater collaborative will and skill.
•  Integration of leadership roles that embrace adaptability,

enabling, and learning
•  Leaders who are intentionally follower-friendly, follower-

empowering, and follower-serving.

4.  Look to where other areas of leadership
theory—even drawing from either diverse
or traditional models—are justifiably
applicable.

Considerations when Transitioning
to Neo-Organizational Structures
(Winston, 2007)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

! The organization has to know who it is and whether or why it
wants to remain who it is.
! The organization has to confirm that it lives what it says it is
(alignment of espoused versus practiced values).
! The organization then has to seek people who have the same
values (values alignment).

! The organization has to indoctrinate members into the
methods by which they live out the values.

! The organization then has to help members see
how the individual’s vision fits in the overall
organizational vision (should not be difficult if the
values alignment is there).
! Then, the chosen model of leadership sets the
stage for the how, what, when, where.

Some concluding
words about
neo-organizational
structures

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

•  Effective/productive organizations will
press into “the next” by utilizing ever-
increasing technological capability and
connectivity to knowledge and people
along with an embracing, non-
judgmental world mindset toward
extremely diversified cultures.

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Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

•  Effective leaders will reemphasize the
truth that people were not made for
organizations, but that organizations
were made to facilitate service for the
fulfilling of the destiny of the people.

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Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

•  Servant leaders—those who empower
through intentional and creative sacrifice
for the people who comprise the
organization—will navigate “the next”
with by inspiring a sprawling team of
emergent leader-followers whose sense
of commitment and dedication to the
vision of the organization is experienced
as a by-product of living meaningfully.

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s:

This excursion forward with life and
work, as unpredictable as “the next”
can be, will find servant leaders
filled with an emergent living reality
that is not only being experienced
personally, but is also being
productively replicated through
fellow servant-leaders.

Eighth International Conference
on Knowledge, Culture and
Change in Organizations

5-8 August 2008
Cambridge University ◦ UK

Effective and
Productive
Organizations
Beware:
The cases of
In-N-Out and
Benny Goodman

Effective and
Productive
Organizations
Beware:
The cases of
In-N-Out and
Benny Goodman

Existing profitable organizations beware
about changing organizational
philosophies and paradigms if what you
presently do—albeit appearing as old
theory and highly hierarchical—still
produces the best at what it does. By
changing your structure merely for the
sake of wanting to become current could
destroy your ability to be effective at
what you do. Embracing SL
characteristics as a leader may enhance
the sense of empowerment and support
of followers in an organization, but it may
not mean that changing the
organizational structure to a negative
hierarchy is appropriate.

-istics as a leader may enhance the sense of empowerment and
support of followers in an organization, but it may not mean that
changing the organizational structure to a negative hierarchy is
appropriate.

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

Once you are what you are, you can enhance skills
and even do some makeovers, but changing your DNA
can be hazardous. In the case of In-N-Out Burger, they
are world-renown for their product. They also have a
centralized hierarchy. This, admittedly, sounds
controlling—and it is—but the product is consistently
the best in town and the service is always excellent.
What In-N-Out did to maintain a controlling hierarchy,
yet remain extremely desirable to food service
employees is by extending bonuses, providing the best
pay in the industry (numerous In-N-Out managers
make 6 figures), and providing upward mobility
opportunities. Given these factors, do not expect them
to find a need to change. Whether franchise or
company owned, excellence can be achieved with the
right combination of organizational theory coupled with
getting the right people on the bus (Collins, 2001). C

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: I
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B

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Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations
5-8 August 2008 ◦ Cambridge University ◦ UK

An example where a change in “operational DNA”
contributed to decline instead of advancement involves
famous popular clarinetist Benny Goodman. A
contemporary of Goodman’s was the famous British
classical clarinetist Reginald Kell, whose outstanding
tone and use of vibrato were world renown during a
great part of the mid-twentieth century. Goodman
came to Reginald Kell after Goodman was already
famous and asked for help with his tone quality. Kell
introduced Goodman to the double-lipped method of
playing the clarinet, thus—according to Kell (personal
communication, Fall 1969)—contributed to the
ruination of Goodman’s career because of the new
sweetness of tone. The old adage sometimes applies:
“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”

C
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Identifying what could be termed as
“improved or theoretically innovative”
organizational structures does not mean
that all is for all, but rather allows greater
enablement to make informed decisions
about what is most appropriate for the
organizations we lead (and serve).

Eighth International Conference
on Knowledge, Culture and
Change in Organizations

5-8 August 2008
Cambridge University ◦ UK

Knowledge,
Culture, Service,
and “The Next”
An excursion forward into
neo-organizational
structure
J. Louis Spencer, Ph.D.

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