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You awake one winter morning to snow falling. When you look out your window at noon, the snow had changed to rain, and later in the afternoon sleet was falling. This later turned to snow. As you are driving home from work, evening rain was freezing on bridges and roadways as glaze. Describe the vertical temperature strata for each type of precipitation and how such a sequence of precipitation might occur.
#2Describe how a star forms and the different stages of a star’s life. Describe the different fates of the different types of stars. What forces are opposing one another throughout the life of a star and how do they influence the various stages in the life cycle of a star? Reference NASA (2015b).
Describe how a star forms and the different stages of a star’s life. Describe the different fates of the different types of stars. What forces are opposing one another throughout the life of a star and how do they influence the various stages in the life cycle of a star? Reference NASA (2015b).
You awake one winter morning to snow falling. When you look out your window at noon, the snow had changed to rain, and later in the afternoon sleet was falling. This later turned to snow. As you are driving home from work, evening rain was freezing on bri
ES 1010, Earth Science 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 8. Relate how radiation and atmospheric processes control weather and climate. 8.1 Explain the role of global circulation in producing different climates. 8.2 Describe air pressure, air masses and fronts, and their effects upon weather patterns. 8.3 Discuss how atmospheric conditio ns produce thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes. Reading Assignment Chapter 13: The Atmosphere in Motion Chapter 14: Weather Patterns and Severe Weather National Severe Storms Laboratory. (n.d. -a). Severe weather 101: Thunderstorm basics. Retrieved from http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/education/svrwx101/thunderstorms/ National Severe Storms Laboratory. (n.d. -b). Severe weather 101: Tornado basics. Retrieved from http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/education/svrwx101/tornadoes/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrat ion. (2010a). Global weather. Retrieved from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/global_intro.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010b). JetStream — online school for weather. Retrieved from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/sy noptic/synoptic_intro.htm Unit Lesson Have you ever wondered why deserts form in some regions and tropical forests in others? W hat creates climate? Why are some areas more prone to precipitation? In this section, we will explore the major factors that affect climates and weather patterns around the world. When discussing weather patterns, it is essential to first understand air pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the weight of air above. There are two over -riding factors that affect air pressure and control weather and climate on Earth. These are sol ar radiation, which we discussed in Unit VI, and the spinning of the Earth (the Coriolis effect). These two factors will create areas of high pressure and areas of low pressure. In general, air will always move from an area of high pressure towards areas o f low pressure. This creates air movement, or wind. Click here for more information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) web site which further details the Origins of wind (NOAA, 2010a). UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE The Atmosphere in Motion and Weather Patterns NOAA satellite image of Hurricane Arthur, July 3, 2014. (NOAA, 2014) ES 1010, Earth Science 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Local winds refer to winds that are generated by small -scale differences in air pressure. For example, along the coast, land heats up more quickly than water (due to water’s higher heat capacity). Therefore, the air above lan d will heat by convection and rise, creating a low pressure area. Over water, the air will cool, condense, and sink, creating an area of high pressure. Wind is generated as air moves from high pressure to low pressure. Click here for an animation that shows how these winds change direction (NOAA, n.d.). A similar phenomenon occurs in mountain valleys. The air over the mountain slope will heat more quickly than air at the same elevation over the valley, creating an area of low pressure. Along mountain ranges, local winds known as Chinooks or Santa Ana, will form as a result of the rain shadow (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 2014). As we learned in Unit VI, air o n the windward side of a mountain range has more moisture than the air descending on the leeward side. This drier air will warm as it descends and form an area of high pressure. Therefore, the warm, dry air will flow towards the moister air on the windward side. Larger wind patterns form high in the atmosphere, due to differences in net radiation. This creates large areas of high and low pressure that are fairly stable and predictable. These pressure differences create strong winds high in atmosphere that circulate around the Earth. These winds are referred to as the Jet Stream , and largely influence patterns of weather. Click here for NOAA’s (2010b) Online School for Weather for more informat ion and a graphical representation of the Jet Stream. How do these jet streams form and how do they impact the world’s climates and weather patterns? W ell, remember that everything boils down to the flow of energy. Energy will always move from a state of high energy (high solar radiation) to a state of low energy (low solar radiation). Since equatorial regions have high net radiation, this energy will move towards to the poles (where net radiation is negative). How does this happen? This transfer of energy (heat) happens both in the ocean and in the atmosphere. In Unit V, we studied how the ocean gyres transferred warm water from the equator toward the polar regions (and how cold water travelled back towards the equator). We learned how this helps to modera te temperatures around the world. A similar pattern happens in the atmosphere. As air is warmed, it expands and becomes less dense. Because it is less dense, it rises. When it reaches a certain point, it will cease to rise. As more air rises beneath it, it forces that air to travel horizontally (towards either the North or South Poles). Eventually, this air cools to the point that it will once again sink towards the Earth’s surface. This air is then pushed by the air behind it to return to the starting poin t, forming a cycle of air movement. Of course, this is a very simplified explanation of the Earth’s air circulation. If the Earth were not rotating, we would see warm air rise at the equator, travel to the poles, then cool, and sink to return to the equat or near the Earth’s surface. However, the Earth is constantly spinning, creating what is called the Coriolis E ffect . We briefly discussed this in Unit V, as this effect will cause water to move in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and a counter -clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. In the atmosphere, the Cori olis E ffect creates smaller cells of air circulation (see Figure 13.17) Click here for more information about global circulation (NOAA, 2010c). How do these cells create world climatic conditions? First, let’s discuss the ar ea near the equator. Keep in mind that this area receives the most net radiation. As the air warms and rises, it creates an area of low pressure. This is referred to as the intertropical co nvergence zone (ITCZ) (NOAA, 2010d) . As this warm, moist air rises and cools, clouds and precipitation form, which makes the tropical region very wet. This air begins to sink again around 20 -30 degrees latitude (North and South), creating a high pressure s ystem called the Subtropical High . This air is very dry (having spent all of its moisture in the ITCZ), which explains why so many of the World’s deserts are found in these regions. This sinking air will then be pushed either North or South, where it eithe r returns to the ITCZ or reaches about 60 degrees latitude. In both cases, it gains heat and moisture as it passes over land and sea, and once again rises to form an area of low pressure and precipitation. These cells of circulation represent the general movement of air, and explain why you see areas of high and low air pressure. Keep in mind that the tilt of the Earth causes seasonal changes in solar radiation, which will cause the ITCZ to move as much as 20 degrees, either North or South. This accounts for the wet and dry seasons that occur in the equatorial region. The differential heating of land and water will also affect air pressure over continents and oceans. Click here for a summ ary of the world’s climates and where they are found (NOAA, 2010e). Around the globe, there will form areas of air that have fairly uniform temperature and moisture conditions. These are known as air masses (NOAA, 2010f). The movement of these air masses can have a significant impact on a region’s weather. Air masses have a source region where they form. These source regions are generally area where the climate is fairly stable —like tropical regions or polar regions. As they move from ES 1010, Earth Science 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title their source area, air masses can bring a change in weather to other regions. These air masses are largely responsible for the wet humid conditions in the Southeastern United States and the winter snows on the Northern United States. The boundaries of these air masses are known as fronts and mark the changes in weather patterns. W here a tropical air mass moves into an area, it is referred to as a warm front . A polar or arctic air mass will bring a cold f ront . A warm front is generally slower moving and is less dense than cold front, which can move in quickly and force the warm front upwards. The collision of fronts often brings clouds and precipitation, as the warm moist air is forced upwards, where the m oisture will condense to form clouds. When a warm front and cold front collide along the jet stream, it can form an area of low pressure, which can affect very large areas. These are known as cyclones. Refer to this NOAA diagram to see how they form (NOAA, 2010g). These cyclones are often responsible for the formation of thunderstorms and, occasionally, a tornado. Severe weather is a term to describe thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hu rricanes. Thunderstorms are the most common. Thunderstorms form when warm, humid air rises in an unstable environment. Generally, in order for a thunderstorm to form, there must be some sort of trigger to force the air up. Most thunderstorms form in the so utheastern United States. This is largely due to the subtropical climate of the area, providing plenty of heat, moisture, and instability. However, you will also notice that a small area just east of the Rocky Mountains also has a high number of thundersto rms. Given that this is an arid climate (on the leeward side of the Rocky Mountains), why would this be an area of high thunderstorm activity? During the summer, a maritime air mass moves up to the mid -latitudes of the eastern half of the United States. Th ere is also a continental polar air mass that moves down along the Rocky Mountains. Where these two air masses collide is where you see this unusually high rate of thunderstorms. Tornadoes and hurricanes are some of the most destructive weather events on Earth. Tornadoes are vortexes of air that form around extremely low pressure centers. Because of the difference in pressure between the center and outside the cell, winds can be extremely strong, up to 480 km per hour! Tornadoes form from severe thundersto rms and usually occur in areas where two air masses collide. This is why the central United States is more prone to tornadoes — where the maritime tropical air meets the continental polar air mass. Tornadoes can form very quickly, travel fast, and are very u npredictable. Hurricanes also form where there are extremely low pressure centers — over warm ocean waters. Unlike tornadoes, hurricanes take time to form and travel quite slowly in a very predictable path. Because hurricanes need warm water and lots of mois ture to form, one would predict that most hurricanes form around the equator. While they do form in this region, hurricanes cannot form right at the equato r because there is no Coriolis E ffect. It is the cycling of air that forms the hurricane, and this ca n only happen where the spin of the Earth causes air to move either clockwise or counter -clockwise (above 5 degrees latitude). Hurricanes are fueled by warm ocean waters. This NOAA video demonstra tes how hurricanes form and are sustained (NOAA, 2013). The Earth’s weather is extremely dynamic. Even with complex computer models, satellite imagery, and the latest weather monitoring devises, meteorologists still face a certain amount of uncertainty in forecasting weather. In Units VI and VII, you get a brief overview of the many interacting factors that are responsible for the climates and weather patterns we see. How has this information helped you understand your local weather and climate? Referen ces Lutgens, F. K., & Tarbuck, E. J. (2014). Foundations of Earth Science (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). NST interactive: Land and sea breezes combined . Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/pd/oceans_ weather_climate/ media/sea_and_land_breeze.swf National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010a). Origin of wind . Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/ jetstream/synoptic/wind.htm National Oc eanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010b). The jet stream. Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ jetstream/global/jet.htm ES 1010, Earth Science 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010c). Global circulations . Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ jetstream/global/circ.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010d). Intertropical convergence zone . Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/tropics/itcz.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010e). Climate. Retri eved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ jetstream/global/climate.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010f). Air masses . Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ srh/jetstream/synoptic/airmass.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrati on. (2010g). Norwegian cyclone model . Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/synoptic/cyclone.htm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2013). NOAA ocean today: Fuel for the storm [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=9 -_obMEF_2o Suggested Reading The links below will direct you to both a PowerPoint and PDF view of the Chapter 13 Presentation. This will summarize and reinforce the information from this chapter in your textbook. Click here to access the Chapter 13 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.)
You awake one winter morning to snow falling. When you look out your window at noon, the snow had changed to rain, and later in the afternoon sleet was falling. This later turned to snow. As you are driving home from work, evening rain was freezing on bri
ES 1010, Earth Science 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 8. Relate how radiation and atmospheric processes control weather and climate. 8.1 Discuss how the atmosphere affects weather and climate. 8.2 Explain the possible pathways of incoming solar radiation and how this is affected by elevation, latitude, and the angle of the Earth’s tilt. 8.3 Explain the role of temperature and water vapor as it relates to weather. Reading Assignment Chapter 11: Heating the Atmosphere Chapter 12: Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Ozone science: The facts behind the phaseout. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/sc_fact.html National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2015). Global warming. Retrieved from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring -references/faq/global -warming.php National Aeronautics and Space Admi nistration. (2015). Temperature puzzle [Video file]. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/42/ Williams, C. [IDT -CSU]. (2015, August 7). Local winds final [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/MjkJfPjBZEA In order to access t he resource below, you must first log into the MyCSU Student Portal and access the General OneFile database within the CSU Online Library. Peck, S. W., & Richie, J. (2009). Green roofs and the urban heat island effect: Roofing materials can absorb energy from the sun and convert it to sensible heat, contributing to the urban heat island effect. Buildings , 103 (7), 1 -5. UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Earth’s Atmo sphere ES 1010, Earth Science 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Unit Lesson W eather affects our day -to-day lives and activities. Depending on the season and climate of our region, we could expect sun, rain, snow, wind, or thunderstorms on any given day. For most of us, checking the local weather forecast is one of the first things we do each day. It is important to distinguish between weather and climate. W eather is constantly changing; in some regions it may seem like the weather changes on an hourly basis! The long -term average weather of a region defines its climate. This unit wi ll focus on both weather and climate and how it is regulated by the atmosphere and location. First, is important to understand the make -up of our atmosphere, which affects the amount of solar radiation absorbed and reflected back to space. Our atmosphere is mainly composed of nitrogen (N 2) and oxygen (O 2), with other gases present in trace amounts. The atmosphere is divided into several layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The troposphere is the lower -most layer and the layer that affects our weather the greatest. In this layer, temperature and air pressure decrease with altitude. Because of these factors, this layer produces clouds and precipitation. The next layer, the stratosphere, is where the ozone layer is found — cau sing temperatures to be fairly constant and slightly warmer. The ozone is the layer that absorbs harmful UV radiation and makes life on Earth possible. The mesosphere is the coldest layer, with decreasing temperatures as the altitude increases. In the four th layer, there is no upper limit. It basically extends into space. Temperatures are very high due to intense solar radiation (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 2014). It is also important to understand the relationship of the Sun and the Earth. Weather is driven by so lar radiation. The amount of solar radiation from place to place is dependent on the angle of the Sun’s rays. When solar radiation is perpendicular to the surface of the Earth, more energy is absorbed. At lower angles, the Earth’s atmosphere will cause mor e reflection of this energy, resulting in lower temperatures. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted, the direction of the Sun’s rays varies at any given point as the Earth rotates around it. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, we experienc e summer. W hen it is tilted away from the Sun, we experience winter. This also affects the day length at any given point on Earth. During summer, the pole that is tilted towards the sun will have much longer days (more hours of sunlight). In fact, on the summer solstice, the pole tilted towards the Sun will have 24 hours of daylight and the pole tilting away from the Sun will have 24 hours of darkness. These differences are diagramed in Figure 11.16 (p. 365 ). Notice that the day length at the equator nev er changes (12 hours of light). Because of this, areas around the equator do not experience changing seasons. So, what happens when the Sun’s radiation strikes the Earth? The Sun’s radiation (short -wave radiation) can either be absorbed by land, sea, and clouds, or reflected back to space. Figure 11.20 (p. 370) shows these different pathways. The amount of radi ation reflected largely depends on something called albedo . Albedo is the reflectivity of a surface. Light -colored surfaces have will have a high albedo and reflect much of the sun’s energy back to space. Dark -colored surfaces will have a lower albedo, abs orbing more heat energy. Much of the radiation absorbed by the earth and sea will be re -radiated back towards the atmosphere (long -wave radiation). The gases in the atmosphere can trap a lot of this long -wave radiation, which is essential to keep the Earth ’s temperature warm enough for life. We refer to this phenomenon as the greenhouse effect . The main greenhouse gases , carbon dioxide and water vapor, allow short -wave radiation to pass through, but block long -wave radiation from leaving the atmosphere. In recent decades, it has been noted that the Earth’s average temperature has been steadily increasing. This correlates to the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This video from NASA (2011) summarizes this phenomenon and the potential effects of global warming. As you can see, there are so many interacting forces that affect the Earth’s climate, it is hard to predict exactly how global warming might affect us. Cumulonimbus cloud seen from 38,000 feet (NOAA, 2015). ES 1010, Earth Science 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title What are some o f the factors that affect regional temperature variations? Latitude, which determines the amount of solar radiation at a given place, is the main cause for temperature differences from place to place (see Table 11.3, p. 356 ). The distance from the coast will also affect regional temperatures. Because water has a higher specific heat (it requires more energy to change the temperature of water), it will maintain its temperature much longer than adjacent land. This has a moderating effect on coastal climate s. If you compare a coastal city to an inland city at the same latitude, you will find that the temperature fluctuates much less near the coast (see Figure 11.32). As we learned in Unit V, the ocean currents can have a significant impact on coastal climate s, bringing in warm or cool waters (depending on the coast). This video from NASA (2012) summarizes how the oceans affect weather and climate. Altitude, as discussed above, will also cause temperature to chan ge. The higher the elevation, the cooler the temperature will be. Local weather conditions may also be impacted by cloud cover and albedo. Temperature is the main driver of weather and climate. The second is water vapor. The amount of water vapor in the a ir is referred to as humidity. As temperatures increase, air is able to hold more water vapor. We measure the actual amount of water vapor in the air and compare that to the potential amount of water vapor that the air could hold at saturation (varies with temperature). This is referred to as relative humidity . Therefore, on a hot summer day it may be much more humid than on a colder day, yet the relative humidity will be lower. As temperatures decrease, the air will become saturated and the water vapor con denses to form a liquid. This will form either fog or clouds. W hen moist air cools near the ground level, fog will form. For clouds and precipitation to form, moist air must be lifted to what is referred to as the condensation point . This is the point wh ere the temperature decreases enough that the air becomes saturated and the water vapor becomes a liquid. Why does air cool as it rises? As described earlier, air pressure decreases with altitude. As air pressure decreases, the air molecules spread further apart and there is less heat energy as molecules collide less often. This phenomenon is known as adiabatic temperature change : as air rises, it expands and cools; as it descends, it condenses and warms. However, it is important to note that air will gener ally not rise on its own. There has to be some mechanisms that forces air upwards in order for clouds to form. These mechanisms include convective lift (air warms from the land below and rises as it becomes less dense), frontal wedging (the collision of wa rm and cool air fronts), convergence (the interaction of as air masses as they come together), and orographic lift (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 2014). Orographic lift is actually a geographic phenomenon that is responsible for a lot of the deserts in the world. This occurs as warm, moist air (usually from the ocean) is forced over a mountain range. As the air ascends, it cools and drops its moisture in the form of precipitation. As it crosses over the mountain range, it then descends and warms. Therefore, the wind ward side of the mountains is often green and lush, while the leeward side is arid and quite barren. The Great Basin of the U.S. (Nevada, Utah, and Idaho) is a good example of the leeward side of the Sierra Nevada Range. It is the interaction of temperatu re and water vapor that will determine what kind of weather an area receives. This is often seasonal and depends on many atmospheric factors. Consider your local region. What type of climate do you experience? What do you think the driving factors are that determine the weather of your region? In Unit VII, we will go into more depth on the factors that drive local weather conditions. References Lutgens, F. K., & Tarbuck, E. J. (2014). Foundations of Earth Science (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. National Aeronautics and Spa ce Administration. (2011). Global warming. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/warmingworld/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2012). The ocean — a driving force for weather and climate. Retrieved from http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi -bin/details.cgi?aid=11056 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2015). Cumulonimbus cloud seen from 38,000 feet [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/clouds/images/cloud1.jpg ES 1010, Earth Science 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Suggested Reading The links below will direct you to both a PowerPoint and PDF view of the Chapter 11 and 12 Presentations. This will summarize and reinforce the information from these chapters in your textbook. Click here to access the Chapter 11 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.) Click here to access the Chapter 12 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.)